The Train

In: English and Literature

Submitted By carballo08
Words 1998
Pages 8
Wagonways and tramways

Earliest traces
The earliest evidence of a wagonway, a predecessor of the railway, found so far was the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece since around 600 BC.[1][2][3][4][5] Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves inlimestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD.[5] The first horse-drawn wagonways also appeared in ancient Greece, with others to be found on Malta and various parts of the Roman Empire, using cut-stone tracks.

Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau dating from around 1350.[6]

In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Castle in Austria. The line originally used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope, and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists, albeit in updated form, and is probably the oldest railway still to operate.[7][8]

Early wagonways

Minecart shown in De Re Metallica (1556). The guide pin fits in a groove between two wooden planks.
Wagonways (or 'tramways') are thought to have developed in Germany in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, utilising primitive wooden rails. Such an operation was illustrated in 1556 by Georgius Agricola (Image right).[9] These used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks, to keep it going the right way.[10]Such a transport system was used by German miners at Caldbeck, Cumbria, perhaps from the…...

Similar Documents

Train Problems

...TRAINS General Concept: (1) Time taken by a train x mt long in passing a signal poster a pole or a standing man = time taken by the train to cover x mt (2) Time taken by a train x mt long in passing a stationary object of length y mt = time taken by the train to cover x+y mt (3) Suppose two trains or two bodies are moving in the same direction at u kmph and v kmph such that u > v then their relative speed is u-v kmph (4)If two trains of length x km and y km are moving in opposite directions at u kmph and vmph,then time taken by the train to cross each other = (x+y)/(u+v) hr (5) Suppose two trains or two bodies are moving in opposite direction at u kmph and v kmph then, their relative speed = (u+v) kmph (6)If two train start at the same time from 2 points A & B towards each other and after crossing they take a & b hours in reaching B & A respectively then A's speed : B's speed = (b^1/2 : a^1/2 ) EXERCISE 1. A train running at the speed of 60 km/hr crosses a pole in 9 seconds. What is the length of the train? A. 120 meters B.180 meters C.324 meters D. 150 meters 2. A train 125 m long passes a man, running at 5 km/hr in the same direction in which the train is going, in 10seconds. The speed of the train is: A. 45 km/hr B. 50 km/hr C. 54 km/hr D. 55 km/hr 3. The length of the bridge, which a train 130 meters long and travelling at 45 km/hr can cross in 30 seconds, is: A. 200 m B. 225 m C. 245 m D. 250 m 4. Two trains running in opposite directions cross a man standing......

Words: 1780 - Pages: 8

Meglev Train

...of an oil availability crisis. Maglev has high safety - both perceived and actual, based on foreign experience. Maglev has convenience - due to high frequency of service and the ability to serve central business districts, airports, and other major metropolitan area nodes. Maglev has improved comfort - with respect to air due to greater roominess, which allows separate dining and conference areas with freedom to move around. The absence of air turbulence ensures a consistently smooth ride. Maglev Evolution The concept of magnetically levitated trains was first identified at the turn of the century by two Americans, Robert Goddard and Emile Bachelet. By the 1930s, Germany's Hermann Kemper was developing a concept and demonstrating the use of magnetic fields to combine the advantages of trains and airplanes. In 1968, Americans James R. Powell and Gordon T. Danby were granted a patent on their design for a magnetic levitation train. Under the High-Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965, the FRA funded a wide range of research into all forms of HSGT through the early 1970s. In 1971, the FRA awarded contracts to the Ford Motor Company and the Stanford Research Institute for analytical and experimental development of EMS and EDS systems. FRA-sponsored research led to the development of the linear electrical motor, the motive power used by all current maglev prototypes. In 1975, after Federal funding for high-speed maglev research in the United States was suspended, industry......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

A Train of Events

...A Train of Events It was the first day of warmth after a long season of frost, which meant our adventures would begin. I awoke with an excitement in the pit of my stomach as I looked outside to a bright wonderland. I quickly dressed myself in overalls and a t-shirt from yesterday’s laundry and slipped on my boots. Not bothering to fuss with my hair or wash my face, I quickly packed a lunch for two in my knapsack. I would hear my mother softly emerging from her bedroom, but I had already dashed outside and halfway across the ranch before she could mention a single chore. From a distance, I could hear her yell out, “Don’t forget your coat!”. My best friend, who just so happened to be my neighbor, was already standing outside her house, hidden behind a massive willow tree, waiting for me. I approached her with a huge happy grin. Both of us didn't have to say much to know what future adventures awaited us. We began walking past the horse corrals and past the goat pins, across the freshly plowed field, striding towards the deep woods. The air was still crisp as it entered our lungs and the ground was defrosting under our feet in the morning sun. We spoke of everything that had happened within our winter’s separation. While I stayed home with my family during the snow shut-in, Francine had stayed with her dad until winter had passed. She explained how unbearable it was to stay with her dad and how he had, yet again, found another girlfriend. Both of us didn't......

Words: 1550 - Pages: 7

Undersea Train

...Real-world event A recent real-world event story in the Washington post gives an insight on the proposed undersea train from Beijing to the United States. This construction project is aimed at TOPICS IN MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS creating high-speed railway networks between China, Russia, Canada and America to provide fast delivery of bulk goods and promote steady business among those countries. (Washington post, May 9, 2014) The challenges the telecommunications and system engineering teams in China will face and how they are going to convince the Chinese government to fund this project is an example of how technology is now used to solve problems in the business world in terms of speed and the challenges they succumb to in the innovation process. Sustainable infrastructure is another issue that has been looked into by the countries involved. The construction of the rail road below sea level is very demanding in terms of funds and labor force. Those issues have already been tabled and as per a report in the state-run China Daily insists “The country does have the technology and means to complete a construction project of this scale, including another tunnel that would link the Chinese province of Fujian with nearby Taiwan”. (China Daily May 8, 2014). The idea is also being analyzed and scrutinized so that a proper decision is made to ensure the undersea train project facilitates business growth. This is an indication that wise decisions are made in......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Maglev Train

...Trends in increased mobility of large masses with changing lifestyle for more comfort are leading to congestion on roads with automobiles. Besides, increasing pollution levels from automobiles, depleting fuel resources, critical dependence on the fuel import and due to a limited range of mobility of buses and cars the need for fast and reliable transportation is increasing throughout the world. High-speed rail has been the solution for many countries. Trains are fast, comfortable, and energy-efficient and magnetic levitation may be an even better solution.Development of magnetic levitated transport systems is under progress in developed countries and it is just a matter of time they make inroads to India as well. Therefore, it will be interesting to know about the science and technology behind mass ground transport system known as "magnetic flight". A LITTLE HISTORY In 1922 a German engineer named Hermann Kemper recorded his first ideas for an electromagnetic levitation train. He received a patent in 1934 and one year later demonstrated the first functioning model. It wasn't until 1969, however, that a government-sponsored research project built the first full scale functioning Transrapid 01. The first passenger Maglev followed a few years later and carried people a few thousand feet at speeds up to 50 mph. The company, Munich's KraussMaffei, which built the first Transrapid, continued to build improved versions in a......

Words: 7837 - Pages: 32

Maglev Train

...PROJECT DOCUMENTATION PROJECT TITLE: TEAM MEMBERS : Datta TEAM MENTORS: BASIC AIM: Maglev Rahul Agrawal , Chirag Gagrani , Akhil Lohia , Sohum RP Suman , Sachin Agarwal Our project is to build a miniature working model of MAGLEV, or more specifically, we will make a car that can be instructed to move forward or backward on a short magnetic linear track by means of magnetic levitation. BACKGROUND: Magnetic levitation (maglev) is an innovative transportation technology. It is sometimes said to be the first fundamental innovation in the field of railroad technology since the invention of the railway. A high speed maglev train uses non-contact magnetic levitation, guidance and propulsion systems and has no wheels, axles and transmission. The replacement of mechanical components by wear-free electronics overcomes the technical restrictions of wheel-on-rail technology. Compared with traditional railways, maglev systems have features that could constitute an attractive transportation alternative: 1. High Speed 2. High Safety 3. Less Pollution 4. Low Energy Consumption PROJECT MOTIVATION: Magnetism has fascinated humans for centuries. So we were looking for a project based on the concept of magnetism. The idea for this project came after discussing with the coordinators and reading a Scientific American Article that described proposed maglev systems around the world and their potential for future travel. THEORY OF OPERATION: Maglev is defined as a “family of......

Words: 1301 - Pages: 6

"Train" Psa

...Emilia Quinones Jason Thayer English 120 3 February 2015 “Train” PSA Rhetorical Analysis Global warming has been investigated by scientists for many years, and continues to be investigated today. Many people question this issue, wondering when it’s consequences will be among us. Many even question whether or not it exists. Every day, there is new evidence discovered about its existence, which makes us all question what the future holds for the earth that we live on. “Train” is a public service announcement made by a nonprofit organization called the Environmental Defense Action Fund. The focus of this organization is to find a solution to global warming, and protecting the environment for the current, and the upcoming generations. This PSA successfully captures the attention of anyone that might come across it by remaining strong, audience-focused, symbolic, and organized. The moral principles of the creator are included with ethos. In the PSA, there is a specific message that the author is trying to get across. He starts it out by stating what the idea of the message is, and then proceeds to tell us the message. In this case, the issue is global warming, but the harmful effects that are predicted aren’t going to be something to worry about in his lifetime, because he’s an older adult. In the PSA, “Train”, an actor is standing on train tracks while he speaks, with a train rapidly approaching. The train in the video is meant to represent the effects of global warming...

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Maglev Train

...for the past century. These engineers envisioned a train that could float above its tracks. They saw the enormous potential for a train like this. The research on magnetic train which called maglev train was started in the beginning of the 1990 century. This concept lay dormant for about60 years. Then Japanese started their research on maglev train in the beginning of 1970 & constructed their first test line in 1997. German also started their research on maglev train in early 1970. It took them ten years to complete their first test line. The train works on the principle of electromagnetic effect. In this there is no friction between the train and track. The electromagnet on the underside of train pulls it up to the ferromagnetic stator on the track & levitates the train. The magnet on the side keeps the train from side to side. A computer changes the amount of current to keep the train 1 cm from the track. This means there is no friction between track & train. As it is high speed train compare to other types of train also noise level due to this train very less & energy consume is less, it is very convenient & beneficial to use. CHAPTER 1:-INTRODUCTION 1.1 History:- Magnetic levitation is the latest in transportation technology and has been the interest of many countries around the world. The idea has been around since 1904 when Robert Goddard, an American Rocket scientist, created a theory that trains could be lifted off the tracks by the use of......

Words: 5035 - Pages: 21

Maglev Trains

...working of magnetic levitation trains. By Shubham Sharma Guided by Sagar Shinde Department Of Mechanical Engineering Pad. Dr. Dy Patil Institute Of Engineering, Management And Research Pad. Dr. Dy Patil Institute Of Engineering, Management And Research CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. Shubham Sharma has successfully completed the seminar work entitled “study of working of magnetic levitation trains” under my supervision, in partial fulfillment of bachelor of engineering – mechanical engineering, by university of pune. Date: Place: Guide: Mr. Sagar Shinde Mrs. Amruta Adwant Guide Head, MechanicalEngineering, DYPIEMR Principal, SEAL DYPIEMR AKNOWLEDGEMENT With immense pleasure I am presenting this seminar report on “Study of working of magnetic levitation trains” as a part of......

Words: 6212 - Pages: 25

Maglev Train

...works a Maglev train? A brief review of magnets will help explain how maglev (magnetic levitation) trains work. Every magnet has a north pole and a south pole. Similar poles of two magnets repel each other; opposite poles attract each other. These principles govern the levitation of maglev trains. Permanent magnets are always magnetic. Electromagnets are magnetic only when an electric current flows through them. The north and south poles of an electromagnet are related to the direction of the current. If the direction of the current is reversed, the poles are reversed. In maglevs that levitate by magnetic repulsion, the train lies over the guideway. Magnets on top of the guideway are oriented to repel similar poles of magnets in the bottom of the maglev. This pushes the train upward into a hovering position. This system is designed for maglevs that contain groups of extremely powerful superconducting electromagnets. These magnets use less electricity than conventional electromagnets, but they must be cooled to very low temperatures—from −269 degrees Celsius to −196 degrees Celsius. In maglevs that levitate by magnetic attraction, the bottom of the train wraps around the guideway. Levitation magnets on the underside of the guideway are positioned to attract the opposite poles of magnets on the wraparound section of the maglev. This raises the train off the track. The magnets in the guideway attract the wraparound section only strongly enough to raise the train a few......

Words: 1563 - Pages: 7

Maglev Train

...Intrpduction : Maglev systems are becoming a popular application around the globe. Maglev trains are popular in transportation stations in big countries like Germany, China, Japan and the United States of America due to the demand for high-speed transportation, as the general public transportation services become more congested with increase of population. Maglev trains are magnetically levitated trains that traverse in a very high speed, with only electricity being its main source of energy. The train propels forward without any friction from moving mechanical parts. It has many advantages with minor drawbacks. The basis of maglev trains mechanisms are magnetic levitation. This is achieved with the principal of repulsion and attraction between two magnetic poles. When two magnets have the same poles, it will repel with each other and when it has different poles, the result would be otherwise. There are currently three known maglev suspension systems. In this project report, we will be covering the basic principals of Electrodynamic Suspension Systems (EDS), Electromagnetic Suspension Systems (EMS) and Inductrack. The three suspension systems each have different characteristics and special features. While EDS and EMS both use only the interaction of magnets and superconductors, Inductrack uses coils on the track underneath the train body. All three suspension systems work under the same principal of magnetic levitation covered in this project report. The maglev......

Words: 3333 - Pages: 14

Maglev Train

...and even conventional trains seem to be too slow in comparison to planes. Now a new transportation mode has occurred that can clearly compete with planes in both speed and safety. They are called MAGLEV trains. The full form and the basic working principle of MAGLEV are called magnetic levitation. Many believe this mode of transportation holds great promise and offers considerable advantages. These trains use far less energy than other types of transportation and do not pollute. They can run at an average speed of 250mph that can climb much higher. The beauty of MAGLEV’S is that they travel on air. The consequent elimination of friction means much greater efficiency. Hence this gives an advantage over a regular train because there is no friction between wheels and the track. 2. WORKING PRINCIPLE The principle of magnetic levitation is that a vehicle can be suspended and propelled on a guidance track made with magnets. The vehicle on top of the track may be propelled with the help of a linear induction motor. Although the vehicle does not use steel rail they are still referred to as trains by definition they are along chain of vehicles which travel in the same direction. This is the definition of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) train. As the frictional parts are minimum in this type of technology, the MAGLEV trains are known to have......

Words: 2436 - Pages: 10

Maglev Train

...California HighSpeedRail Series High Speed Rail in Japan: A Review and Evaluation of Magnetic Levitation Trains MamomTaniguchi Working Paper UCTCNo. I02 The University of California Transportation Center Umversity California of Berkeley, CA 94720 The University Transportation of California Center The University of California Transportation Center (UCTC) is one of ten regional units mandated by Congress and established in Fall 1988 to support research, education, and training in surface transportation. The UCCenter serves federal Region IX and is supported by matching grants from the U.$. Departmerit of Transportation, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), and the University. Based on the Berkeley Campus, UCTCdraws upon existing capabilities and resources of the Institutes of Transportation Studies at Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, and Los Angeles; the Institute of Urban and Regional Development at Berkeley; and several academic departments at the Berkeley, Davis, Irvhae, and Los Angeles campuses. Faculty and students on other University of California campuses may participate in Center activities. Researchers at other universities within the region also have opportunities to collaborate with UCfaculty on selected studies. UCTC’seducational and research programs are focused on strategic planning for improving metropolitan accessibility, with emphasis on the special conditions in Region IX. Particular attention is directed to strategies for using......

Words: 4096 - Pages: 17

Train a Squad

...Squad Training • You are a member of Special Troop Battalion, 3d BCT, 10th Mountain Division. Your battalion will deploy to Iraq within six months. The battalion commander approved your unit’s METL. The METL identifies critical tasks for each platoon and now it is time for squad leaders to select tasks to train that support the platoon’s critical tasks. 2. The platoon’s critical tasks are as follows: a. Conduct unit operations. b. Guard detained prisoners of war. c. Treat casualties. d. Perform in a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) environment. e. Implement combat survival techniques in area of operation. 3. Use the class reference material to select the appropriate tasks for your squad to train that support the platoon’s critical tasks. Record your answers (title and task number) in the comment box. Conduct Unit operations 071-326-3013 Conduct a Tactical Road March.......................................... 3-158 071-720-0015 Conduct an Area Reconnaissance by a Platoon ...................3-161 091-CTT-4001 Supervise Maintenance Operations..................................... 3-242 181-101-4001 Conduct a Search/Seizure ................................................... 3-245 Guard detained prisoners of war 181-101-2023 Enforce the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).......... 3-1 181-105-2001 Enforce the Law of War and the Geneva and Hague Conventions ............... 3-6 181-105-2002 Conduct......

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Maglev Train

...scientist, created a theory that trains could be lifted off the tracks by the use of electromagnetic rails. Many assumptions and ideas were brought about throughout the following years, but it was not until the 1970’s that Japan and Germany showed interest in it and began researching and designing. The motion of the Maglev train is based purely on magnetism and magnetic fields. This magnetic field is produced by using high-powered electromagnets. By using magnetic fields, the Maglev train can be levitated above its track, or guideway, and propelled forward. Wheels, contact with the track, and moving parts are eliminated on the Maglev train, allowing the Maglev train to essentially move on air without friction. [pic] FIGURE[1] BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MAGLEV TRAIN Maglev can be used for both low and high speed transportation. The low speed Maglev is used for short distance travel. Birmingham, England used this low speed transportation between the years of 1984 and 1995. However, engineers are more interested in creating the high-speed Maglev vehicles. The higher speed vehicle can travel at speeds of nearly 343mph or 552 km/h. Magnetic Levitation mainly uses two different types of suspension, which are Electromagnetic Suspension and Electrodynamic Suspension. However, a third suspension system (Intuctrack) has recently been developed and is in the research and design phase. These suspension systems are what keep the train levitated off the......

Words: 4370 - Pages: 18