The Rise of Indian Sovereignty

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Submitted By jocelynv19
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The Rise of Indian Sovereignty Long before the United States of America ever came to be, this land was ruled by the original Native Americans. As settlers started to make their way to America, the Native Americans were greatly affected. Some of it was good; they learned new farming instruments to help grow certain food, and horses were reintroduced to the land which brought the Indians a form of transportation. But some of the changes came with problems. Though horses were a great benefit for the Indians, they brought over diseases that the Native Americans couldn’t handle. The new settlers also brought diseases such as chicken pox, measles, and small pox. Since the Indians didn’t have built up immunities against these viruses, it caused many deaths, especially small pox outbreaks. Between 1790 and 1871, the United States Senate had ratified a staggering 380 treaties with the Native Americans. Congress had entered into these treaties with the Indian Nations to acquire land which the U.S. would then sell-off to cover the countries overwhelming debts. Growing a new nation, even back in that time, was very costly. And the U.S. was not strong enough at that early stage to try and take Native American land by force. What the new government had to offer them, in return, was sovereignty and peace. In the 1820’s, the state of Georgia challenged the legal concept of sovereignty in the Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall took effort to examine this idea of sovereignty, and to explain how it would actual operate. He knew that eventually, battles with the Native Tribes would only increase over time. The effort of John Marshal is known as the Marshall Trilogy. It said that every treaty ratified by the U.S. Senate was now the "supreme law of the land." “Sovereignty, explained Marshall, exists as a pre-condition among self-governing entities and acts as a…...

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