Swimming with Sharks

In: Business and Management

Submitted By brettnovek
Words 19239
Pages 77
Swimming with Sharks:
Technology Ventures,
Defense Mechanisms and Corporate
Riitta Katila
Stanford University

Jeff D. Rosenberger
Nomis Solutions

Kathleen M.
Stanford University

This paper focuses on the tension that firms face between the need for resources from partners and the potentially damaging misappropriation of their own resources by corporate “sharks.” Taking an entrepreneurial lens, we study this tension at tie formation in corporate investment relationships in five U.S. technology-based industries over a 25-year period. Central to our study is the
“sharks” dilemma: when do entrepreneurs choose partners with high potential for misappropriation over less risky partners? Our findings show that entrepreneurs take the risk when they need resources that established firms uniquely provide (i.e., financial and manufacturing) and when they have effective defense mechanisms to protect their own resources (i.e., secrecy and timing). Overall, the findings show that tie formation is a negotiation that depends on resource needs, defense mechanisms, and alternative partners. These findings contribute to the recent renaissance of resource dependence theory and to the discussion on the surprising power of entrepreneurial firms in resource mobilization.•
A central question in organization and strategy research is how firms gain resources (Penrose, 1959; Thompson, 1967).
In response, researchers have identified several approaches, including the acquisition of other firms (Ahuja and Katila,
2001) and organic development (Katila and Chen, 2008). But because acquisitions can be too expensive or unavailable
(Graebner and Eisenhardt, 2004), and organic development can be too slow (Eisenhardt and Tabrizi, 1995), interorganizational relationships have become an attractive way to obtain resources, especially for…...

Similar Documents


...“Learning something new can be a scary experience. One of the hardest things I've ever had to do was learn how to swim. I was always afraid of the water, but I decided that swimming was an important skill that I should learn, .I also thought it would be good exercise and help me to become physically stronger. What I didn't realize was that learning to swim would also make me a more confident person. New situations always make me a bit nervous, and my first swimming lesson was no exception. After I changed into my bathing suit in the locker room, I stood timidly by the side of the pool waiting for the teacher and other students to show up. After a couple of minutes the teacher came over. She smiled and introduced herself, and two more students joined us. Although they were both older than me, they didn't seem to be embarrassed about not knowing how to swim. I began to feel more at ease.” Learning to swim made my summers more enjoyable by making my time in the water safer. As a teen that didn’t know how to swim I was terrified by the thoughts of drowning, afraid to look weak or ashamed for not knowing how to swim. Learning how to swim increase my self-confidence and eliminated my fears of drowning. I had to overcome the fear of the water that was a huge step for me. Before deciding to take swimming lesson, I would spend many days on the side of the pool also walking in the shallow end. My instructor started my first lesson with kicking, holding on to......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2


...Endangered Sharks Rapidly declining shark populations has already been noticed and will continue to decline unless further steps are taken to ensure their protection as endangered species. 50 out of 307 shark species, listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), are either vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered. However, of those 50, only three, the White, Whale, and Basking sharks are protected internationally under CITES. CITES is the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Sharks as a whole, represent the highest percentage of threatened marine species listed on the IUCN Red List of threatened species. Some well-known species that are endangered are Hammerheads, Tiger Sharks, Whale Sharks, Great White Sharks, Shortfin Mako Shark, and many tropical reef sharks. The decrease of shark populations has already had devastating effects on local coastal communities. Two of the world’s largest fish are on the endangered list. The Whale Shark is listed as vulnerable for extinction. They migrate seasonally and are targeted by commercial fisheries. Whale sharks feed on krill and plankton so they do not harm humans, the most harm one could face would be to get struck by its massive caudal, tail, fin. Whale Sharks are beneficial to many tropical reef areas. In addition, the Basking Shark is also listed as vulnerable. These are the second largest living fish left. They are found in all the worlds’ temperate oceans and are a...

Words: 2299 - Pages: 10


...Swimming is one of the most popular sports in Australia. Our nation is surrounded by water and swimming is one of our great passions. As well as being fun, swimming is a great way to keep fit, stay healthy and make friends. Swimming is a healthy activity that you can continue for a lifetime. It is a low-impact activity that has many physical and mental health benefits. Swimming for recreation Swimming is a great recreational activity for people of all ages. Recreational swimming can provide you with a low-impact workout and it’s also a good way to relax and feel good. Common swimming styles in recreational swimming are breaststroke, backstroke, side stroke and freestyle. Competitive swimming Some people who enjoy swimming want to take it to a competitive level. This can provide the health benefits of a vigorous workout as well as the fun and thrill of competition. The main strokes used in competitive swimming are breaststroke, freestyle, backstroke and butterfly. The distances swum in competition swimming can vary from 50 metres in a pool to much further distances in open water. Health benefits Swimming is a great workout because you need to move your whole body against the resistance of the water. Swimming is a good all-round activity because it: Keeps your heart rate up but takes some of the impact stress off your body Builds endurance, muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness Helps maintain a healthy weight, healthy heart and lungs Tones muscles and...

Words: 425 - Pages: 2


...Bloodthirsty, ruthless, killer: shark. For years people have feared and slaughtered sharks because of the bad rap they have received from Hollywood, but these beliefs are not justified. Sharks are not vicious and are actually quite gentle. Of the more than 388 species of sharks only two (the Great White and the Tiger) have been known to attack man and then only because of mistaken identity. Wetsuits and surfboards used by surfers are mistaken by sharks as the thick, rubbery, skin of seals, which are their main diet. Once the shark bites the surfer, it almost immediately lets go because it does not taste like its favorite meal. Not all big sharks have huge jaws full of teeth, as many people believe. Whale sharks, the largest fish in the world, are the most affable creatures you will encounter in our world's oceans. These sharks (that can weigh over three thousand pounds and grow up to five stories in length) have no teeth at all. Instead they have a mouth full of baleen that they use to filter plankton and tiny fish out the hundreds of gallons of sea water that passes through their monstrous mouths at one time. These peaceful giants have been known to let divers ride on their backs and don't show any aggression when approached. People should treat sharks with respect, as they should all earth's creatures. The only way for future generations to learn to appreciate these magnificent creatures (instead of fear them) is through education. This can be accomplished through...

Words: 292 - Pages: 2


...I’m pressing rewind Cause I have never baby sitting, I be lining up shots I’ma show you how to turn it up a notch First you get a swimming pool full of liquor, then you dive in it Swimming pool full of liquor, then you dive in it I wave a few bottles, then I wash them apart All the girls wanna play Baywatch I got a swimming pool full of liquor and they dive in it pool full of liquor I’ma dive in it Pour up, drank, head shot, drank Sit down, drank, stand up, drank Pass out, drank, wake up, drank Faded, drank, faded, drank Now I done grew up Round some people living their life in bottles Granddaddy had the golden flask Back stroke every day in Chicago Some people like the way it feels Some people wanna kill their sorrows Some people wanna fit in with the popular That was my problem I was in the dark room -Loud tunes, looking to make a vow soon That I'ma get fucked up, fillin' up my cup I see the crowd mood Changing by the minute and the record on repeat Took a sip, then another sip, then somebody said to me Cause I have never baby sitting, I be lining up shots I’ma show you how to turn it up a notch First you get a swimming pool full of liquor, then you dive in it Swimming pool full of liquor, then you dive in it I wave a few bottles, then I wash them apart All the girls wanna play Baywatch I got a swimming pool full of liquor and they dive in it pool full of liquor I’ma dive in it Pour up, drank, head shot, drank Sit down, drank,......

Words: 876 - Pages: 4


...Bibliography of swimming 1.)Arjan P. Palstra, Guido E. E. J. M. van den ThillartFish Physiol Biochem. 2010 September; 36(3): 297–322. Published online 2010 April 14. doi: 10.1007/s10695-010-9397-4 2.)Olivia J. Mullins, John T. Hackett, James T. Buchanan, W. Otto Friesen Prog Neurobiol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 February 1.Published in final edited form as: Prog Neurobiol. 2011 February; 93(2): 244–269. Published online 2010 November 18.doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.11.001 3.)Marek RejmanJ Sports Sci Med. 2013 March; 12(1): 171–181. Published online 2013 March 1. 4.)Chiung-Chi Peng, Kuan-Chou Chen, Chiu-Lan Hsieh, Robert Y. Peng PLoS One. 2012; 7(6): e37388. Published online 2012 June 27. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037388 5.) J. Chen, W. O. Friesen, T. Iwasaki J Exp Biol. 2011 February 15; 214(4): 561–574. Published online 2011 January 26. doi: 10.1242/jA.P Farrell 6.)Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 November 29; 362(1487): 2017–2030. Published online 2007 May 21. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2111eb.048751 7.)Wen-Chang Li, Peter R MoultJ Neurosci. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 November 2 Published in final edited form as: J Neurosci. 2012 May 2; 32(18):......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2


...Running head: Sharks Sharks T Tolerico Marine Biology Doctor Cameron Guenther Sharks What do you think of when you hear the word “Shark”? Do you think of the lion of the ocean or perhaps God’s perfect predator/scavenger? Perhaps you think of the movie “JAWS”? Most people will think of the movie “JAWS” and think killer, attacker, and predator. However, are sharks really preying on humans? I view sharks as God’s perfect predator and scavenger. Sharks, like lions, weed out the sick and slow fish to keep the population strong. They also scavenge on the bottom of the ocean any carcasses that settle there. The attacks on humans are more likely the shark “tasting” to see if the movement is a fish. When the shark realizes that the human is not its prey, they move away. Sharks can be found all over the world’s seas, from the equator to polar regions. We are currently aware of about 480 species and there are still species to discover. Some species, known as benthic, dwell mainly on the ocean floor. An example of a benthic is the nurse shark or ray shark. They scour the ocean floor for food. Other species are known as pelagic, meaning they spend much of their time navigating the open seas. Most of the species that we are familiar with are pelagic. Some species even inhabit rivers and lakes. The Bull shark can migrate into rivers and lakes. One important feature of sharks is that they are made up of cartilage not bone. There has been research done on shark......

Words: 2370 - Pages: 10


...Shark Killing and the Ecosystem Introduction Sharks are fascinating creatures that come in all sizes and live in water all over the world. Arguably, these creatures play a very imperative responsibility in the ocean that a fish cannot. Apparently, sharks are the top food providers in the ocean almost in every part of the world. In this case, they assist in keeping the inhabitants of other fish species healthy and in suitable proportion for their ecosystem. However, shark population faces the threat of extinction in almost all parts of the world due to overfishing. Fishers us a technique called Bycatch, a process in which marine mammals or species of fish are unintentionally, caught while fishing for a specific target. Irrespective of the initiatives and laws put in place for overfishing, fishers have continued to hunt sharks for the fin soup, which is in high demand than their meat. On the other hand shark cartilage and shark liver oil are sold as cures for the hosts of aliments. Due to this disparity between meat and fins, it has led to a horrific practice of shark fining. As a result, there is need to create awareness on the importance of sharks in all parts of the world in order to save ocean ecosystem from extinction. Catching Techniques Many fishing techniques and gear are no selective and result in catching and discarding millions of marine life that is not always the target species. Most of the fishing methods like the long line typically are used to catch tuna.......

Words: 2124 - Pages: 9


...Swimming Survival Whenever learning swimming it is very important to not only get better in a fitness aspect and a way of staying healthy, but one of the most important things to learn about while swimming is swimming to survive. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2004, there were 3,308 unintentional drowning’s in the United States, an average of nine people per day. Also according to the American Academy of Pediatrics it is estimated that for each drowning death, there are 1 to 4 nonfatal submersions serious enough to result in hospitalization. Children who still require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) at the time they arrive at the emergency department have a poor prognosis, with at least half of survivors suffering significant neurologic impairment. There are many different instances in which the ability to swim affectively can save yours or somebody else’s life in a certain situation. Some of these situations include flood, ocean, river or even your basic swimming pool can all produce its own level of hazards or obstacles that can potentially cause saver injury or death. One technique that will help in some of these situations according to essortment.com is back floating also known as "sculling," the back float is performed by lying flat on your back with your feet relaxed and slightly apart. Your arms are at your sides moving slowly side-to-side. If you feel yourself sinking, raise your chin putting your head further back in......

Words: 285 - Pages: 2


...Sharks One of the most feared predators of the ocean are the sharks, with more than 465 known species of sharks living in our ocean today. They are very popular animals with movies such as Jaws and Deep Blue Sea, these animals are also dedicated a whole week on animal planet they are often categorized as monstrous savages who just attack any and everything. In fact that isn’t a true reputation of them. These animals are survivors and have been around for a long time. These fascinating creatures have caught the eye and imagination of so many people as well as me. There are many things I want to cover over today just to give a better understanding and idea of sharks. Sharks are very smart creatures so its no surprise to learn they have plenty of ways in effective forms of communication. Eventhough sharks are generally loners, so they aren’t in groups. This makes it harder for scientist to observe how they actually communicate with each other than with other animals that live in the water. They have an amazing sense of hearing which is believed most likely to be how they communicate majority of the time. They can hear sounds at very low frequencies so a great part of it won’t even be picked up during the test observations. Sharks also use their hearing to allow them to pick up vibrations and electrical currents from other sharks in the water with them. Most of the communication among sharks involves aggression. They will fight each other not for territory but for food. For...

Words: 2560 - Pages: 11


...noon -1pm. Mom was cooking one of my favorite cookies and I could smell their crunchy, yummy smells. This desire was very powerful that kept me swimming between noon and 1pm. However, I forgot that everybody do not like cookies as much as I do and might try something ‘funny’ at the coast. But how water could be funny for 45 years old men who cannot swim? After I done with my lovely cookies, crunchy smell is disappeared and I got that salty smell and heard yelling comes from the sea. It was my 45 years old dad who cannot swim! There were 10 meter between house and the coast, but I run like 100 miles. One scene was repeating itself : my dad was plunging into water over and over again. “Save him!” my mom was shouting, but there were nobody else than me and my brother. “who, me?” I answered her in a worry. She was the one who told me stay away from deep water, now she was asking me to go there. Me and my brother jump into water and got my dad out of water. He was like got 50 ages older in 10 minutes. I got that salty smell very close, but yelling was gone. There was my dad that I saved him from my playmate. Then my mom came close to me and whispered to my ear: “ I knew you were swimming in deep water.” I shocked and panicked, she knew but how? “ if I have not told you to not swim in deep water, you would not learn swimming. Because you do whatever I ask you not to do” I ate cookies, run 100 miles and fought with my playmate between noon and 1pm on that......

Words: 438 - Pages: 2


...Are sharks perfectly adapted predators? This essay will discuss how sharks are thought to be one of the most perfectly adapted predators in the ocean food chain due to their physiology and interactions with their environment. However we must not disregard the fact that there are many species of sharks which may possess different features meaning that only certain species may be considered ‘perfectly adapted’. It is thought that sharks have been around for around 400 million years, in which they quickly evolved to the environment they live in. The sharks we see today are believed to be the result of evolution that took place 100 million years ago, making them largely unchanged over this time period. The most recently evolved sharks are the sphyrnids (hammerhead sharks) and the carcharhinids (requiem sharks). Although the reason behind why these sharks have survived could be due to early adaptation to their ecological role, we must consider those species of sharks that are now extinct and understand why certain species adapted quicker than others. Sharks main defining feature is their cartilaginous skeleton, placing them in the class Chondrichthyes, which is thought to make up only 1% of living fishes. By having cartilage as opposed to a bony skeleton they are lighter and more flexible in the water, as well as the cartilage strengthening the body frame of the shark. This class of fish are commonly known for their paired fins, paired nostrils and jaws and can then be......

Words: 1460 - Pages: 6


...Swimming competitively is one of the most difficult and challenging sports there is. Why? Because like basketball, football, baseball or any other team sport you can never "win" the game, because a swimmers main goal is to improve there time not to win. Of course all swimmers like to win though. Part of what make swimming so difficult is not just the in the water part but also what is called "dry-land", which is various exercises a swimmer would do on land to work there swim specific muscles in a more specific way. Most dry-land programs consist of running, sit- ups, push ups, and weight training. Weight training is done differently than in football because swimmers want to be tone but not weighed down by excess muscle. Swimmers use less weight but do more repetitions than most athletes. Another thing that makes swimming harder that most people don't realize is that swimmers get little to no attention especially compared to the "big money sports" like basketball, football, and baseball. A question many top swimmers are asked is "Are you a pro swimmer". The answer from everyone is "No, there is no professional swimming. I am a competitive swimmer-an amateur competitive swimmer." (Swimming World March 1997, Phillip Whitten) When there is no money in a sport it seems to get over looked. Most swimmers practice twice a day during their season. Olympic swimmer Jeremy Linn swims about 12,000 meters a day (Swimming World March 1997). Each practice has its physical demands,......

Words: 289 - Pages: 2


...shark tank assignment #1 by Cristian Pacheco 1. Select an episode of “Shark Tank” and watch the episode. You may watch an episode that has aired for this year, or you may watch an upcoming episode. Answer: The episode I watched is the number 305 Air Date: Friday, March 09, 2012 . 2. You are to select one of the segments, which is funded by the Sharks to research. Answer: In the second segment of the show, four entrepreneurs the Nardo’s brothers Dj Nardo, Kyle Nardo, Danny Nardo and Kj Nardo bring up their company “Nardo’s Natural” to the Shark Tank looking for help because the demand they had for the product was more then what they could produced they needed it $75.000.00 and they were offering 25% of their company in exchange, until Barbara Corcoran made an offer of $75.000.00 for 50% of the company, the brothers accepted the offer so Barbara become part of the company. 3. You are to visit the company web site and look for answers to any of the following questions: a. Does the company mention on their site the show “Shark Tank”. b. What type of sales or distribution does the company have? c. Will the funding from Shark Tank help the company grow? Answer: (A) In the web-side for this company www.nardosnatural.com the show is mention as a opportunity of a business to star or grow, they have offers related to the TV show but the don’t mention how much money they......

Words: 508 - Pages: 3


...all the species walking, flying, slithering or swimming, there aren't many who have been around as long, survived as well, or come in so many shapes and kinds as the shark. The earliest evidences of sharks are isolated spines, teeth and scales that appeared about 430 million years ago in the Silurian Period, known as the "Age of Fishes". Sharks have a sleek, streamlined design which helps them swim without using up a lot of energy.They certainly need to conserve their energy because they never really sleep and most of them never stop swimming. Some sharks are fierce predators, and would be happy to eat you if they encountered you. Almost any shark six feet or longer is a potential danger, but three species have been identified repeatedly in attacks: the Great White Shark, the Tiger Shark and the Bull Shark . All three live world wide, reach large sizes and eat large prey such as marine mammals or sea turtles. But most sharks never grow longer than five feet and never even see anyone with legs and arms anyway. People kill thousands more sharks every year than sharks kill people. Sharks take about as long to mature as we do. Some of them become adults in their teens. A mother shark carries her babies inside her body while they develop, sometimes for more than a year. Even so, some sharks are born inside an egg which they have to crack open. They spend early portions of their lives in nursery grounds. Some of the advantages sharks have over people is that they keep growing......

Words: 869 - Pages: 4