Sedimentary Rock Worksheet

In: Science

Submitted By register34
Words 971
Pages 4
Associate Level Material

Sedimentary Rock Worksheet

Use the following table to describe and distinguish between the effects of weathering and erosion. Each response must be at least 200 words.

Effects of Weathering Effects of Erosion What are the Differences?
Mechanical or physical weathering includes two main processes: fracturing and abrasion, which may be intense in wet and dry regions. Wind, rain, snow, ice and other geological events cause mechanical weathering. This type of weathering leads to splitting of rocks and minerals into fragments. Big and sudden changes in air temperature, which are very common in deserts or water temperature changes, always cause expansion or contraction of minerals. For example, when water enters a crack and freezes, it widens the crack and eventually leads to breaking of the surface. Plant roots have a similar effect when they grow so big that they reach the crack in the rock. At some point, the rock will fall apart. This type of weathering changes the mineral composition of rocks by chemical processes and it can sometimes lead to dangerous conditions. Water is the basic agent in chemical weathering because it initiates the whole process. Some of its effects are oxidation (rusting), hydration and carbonization. Chemical weathering also causes loss of chemical elements by solution in water. Caves, stalactites and stalagmites are created by different chemical processes of weathering

Sheet erosion is soil movement from raindrop splash resulting in the breakdown of soil surface structure and surface runoff; it occurs rather uniformly over the slope and may go unnoticed until most of the productive topsoil has been lost. Rill erosion results when surface runoff concentrates forming small yet well-defined channels. These channels are called rills when they are small enough to not interfere with field machinery…...

Similar Documents

History of Rocks

...Material History of Rock Worksheet Leah Bechtel 12/09/2012 SCI/245 Robert Dillon Write a 500- to 750-word explanation regarding the role of plate tectonics in the origin of igneous rocks. The role of plate tectonics in the origin of igneous rock is extremely important. Igneous rock is formed from magma that reaches the continental and oceanic crust or through hot spots that are around the world. There are three different places where igneous rocks can form; where the lithospheric plates pull apart at mid ocean ridges, where plates come together at seduction zones, and where continental crust is pushed together making the crust thicker and allowing it to heat to a melting point. The word igneous comes from the Latin word for fire, igneous rocks start off as a hot, fluid material which is usually erupted from the Earth’s surface as lava, or magma at shallow depths or deep depths. Magma is a mush like material that can carry a load of minerals, but people often think of lava and magma as a liquid like material of molten metals. The three types of igneous rocks are extrusive, intrusive and platonic rocks. Extrusive rocks are rocks that form and cool on the crust of the Earth whether it is on the continental crust or the oceanic crust. Extrusive rocks cool quickly, within a few seconds to months and they have invisible or very small grains; extrusive rocks have an aphanitic texture. Intrusive rocks are rocks that form within already existing rocks causing sills......

Words: 957 - Pages: 4

Sedimentary Rocks

...CheckPoint: Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks form on the Earth’s surface. Sediment carried by water or wind accumulates in troughs, trenches, and basins. This sediment forms layers that go through a process called lithification. Lithification is the group of process by which loose sediment is transformed into sedimentary rock (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). This means the separate particles are joined together to from rock. The process of lithification begins with compaction. Compaction happens when the weight of continuing sediment places pressure on lower layers of sediment. This pressure reduces the pore space. There are two other ways compaction may occur; cementation and crystallization. Cementation is when the water within the sediment evaporates making the pores smaller and crystallization is when new crystalline mineral grains form from old ones. Sedimentary rocks have been divided into 3 categories; clastic, chemical and biogenic. Clastic sedimentary rocks are a combination of mineral debris and fragments of rocks that were formed by erosion and weather. Clastic rocks are often characterized by the size of their grains. Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from the inorganic deposition of chemicals. This process takes place through the evaporation of a chemical rich solution. The chemicals generally come from the chemical weathering of other rocks and sediments. Biogenic sedimentary rocks are formed from organic material such as......

Words: 261 - Pages: 2

Sedimentary Rocks

...Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are very complex rocks that give us information on our past. Distinguishable characteristics such as color, size, and rounding of the sediments tell scientists about the environment that was once there long ago. How are the sediments formed to preserve this archive of our past? The system of how a rock is formed from sediment is complex and can occur without even knowing. The first step is the sediment. Sediments are tiny particles that are shaved off of rocks, soil, and other solid objects by a fluid source. These sources can include wind, water, and ice. In order to break down this process, the types of sediments must be introduced. Clastic Sediment Clastic sediment is formed from rock and mineral debris as a result of weathering and erosion. The clasts come in a variety of sizes and this is how they are classified. The biggest of the clasts is gravel. Gravel is classified as sediment with pea-sized or larger particles. When gravel becomes compacted and forms a rock, it is known as a conglomerate. The next type of clast is sand. Sand sediments are smaller than gravel, usually the size of a pinhead. When sand hardens, it forms a rock known as sandstone. Getting even smaller is silt. Silt is around the size of a grain of salt. Silt can form into siltstone once compacted and hardened. Finally, there is clay. Clay can be the size of flour particles, or even smaller. Mudstone or shale is the result of rock formation. Another type of......

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Rocks

...Rock Report Exercise Due Date: 4/1/2014 Name: Rianne Richter Class: 1121k Grade: /35 After you have finished Lab Exercises 4, 5, and 7, complete the following questions. You may have to refer to the exercises for assistance to locate specific answers. 1. Match the rock type with the correct statement describing its formation. (3 point). ❖ Found where the atmosphere or liquid water causes erosion and movement of rock pieces. Metamorphic Formation ❖ Found mostly near convergent tectonic plate boundaries where the P/T condition can be very high. Sedimentary Formation ❖ Found in places where the interior is so hot that rock melts and tehn cools again to form new rock. Igneous Formation 2. List the texture and mineral composition of each of the following rocks. (5 points). Granite: Schistosity; Quartz, K-feldspars, biotite. Marble: Non-foliated; Calcite. Sandstone: Clastic; Quartz, feldspare. Gneiss: Compositional Banding; Diorite or granite. Shale: Layered, fine-grained; Quartz. 3. Where would you expect to find the coarser textured igneous rocks, in a laccolith or in a lava flow? Why? (2 points) A laccolith, because rocks that are found in a lava flow cool too fast to form course faces. 4. Which of...

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Glg 101 Week 5 Assignment Sedimentary Rocks

...Assignment Sedimentary Rocks Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser http://hwguiders.com/downloads/glg-101-week-5-assignment-sedimentary-rocks/ For More Courses and Exams use this form ( http://hwguiders.com/contact-us/ ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar (http://hwguiders.com/ ) Sedimentary Rocks Plate tectonics plays a significant role in the development of sedimentary rocks. Plate tectonics break down the rocks which cause sediment (the brittle rocks). Sediment originates from brittle fragments of rocks that have been broken down from weathering and erosion. Sediment rocks are formed through a lithification process which includes compaction, cementation and recrystalization. TO Download Complete Tutorial Hit Purchase Button GLG 101 Week 5 Assignment Sedimentary Rocks Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser http://hwguiders.com/downloads/glg-101-week-5-assignment-sedimentary-rocks/ For More Courses and Exams use this form ( http://hwguiders.com/contact-us/ ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar (http://hwguiders.com/ ) Sedimentary Rocks Plate tectonics plays a significant role in the development of sedimentary rocks. Plate tectonics break down the rocks which cause sediment (the brittle rocks). Sediment originates from brittle fragments of......

Words: 2921 - Pages: 12

Sedimentary Rocks

...All about Sedimentary Rocks Zakk Wylde SCI/245 January 30, 2011 Stephen Hallin The changing plate interactions and shifting plate junctures, helps us to understand the sedimentary basins. Although plate tectonics is mostly about the horizontal movements of the lithosphere, it also involves large vertical movements which accounts for changes of the crust thickness. Thick sedimentation has to have an initial depression or progressive subsidence to proceed; the auxiliary vertical movements are what mostly control the sedimentary basins (how they evolve). Geographic changes related to the governing horizontal movements also affect patterns of sedimentation strongly. Therefore, sedimentation can be viewed as the result of a succession of discrete plate tectonic settings, and plate interactions whose effects blend into a continuum of development. Sedimentary rocks are composed from deposits of material worn away from pre-existing rocks. “The word sedimentary comes from the Latin word sedimentum, which means settling. They come from the cementation of sediments that result from the erosion of older rocks. The characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is their stratification or layering. Examples of sedimentary rock include; chalk, coal, limestone,......

Words: 845 - Pages: 4

Rocks

...temperature water bodies. | Arkose is a detrital sedimentary rock, specifically a type of sandstone containing at least 25% feldspar. | Syenite a coarse-grained gray igneous rock composed mainly of alkali feldspar and ferromagnesian minerals. | Tephrite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. | Monolith a large single upright block of stone, especially one shaped into or serving as a pillar or monument. | Peridotite is a dense, coarse-grained igneous rock, consisting mostly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene. | Amphibolite is a coarse-grained metamorphic rock that is composed of amphibole minerals and plagioclase feldspar. | Magnetite is a mineral and one of the three common naturally-occurring oxides of iron. | Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 | Pelite is a term applied to metamorphic rocks derived from a fine-grained sedimentary protolith. | Turbidite a type of sedimentary rock composed of layered particles that have originated from the oceans. | Siltstone is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones. | Pumice is a light-colored, extremely porous igneous rock that forms during explosive volcanic eruptions. | Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. | Troctolite is a mafic intrusive rock type. It consists essentially of......

Words: 305 - Pages: 2

Sci/245 History of Rocks Worksheet

...Associate Program Material History of Rock Worksheet Write a 500- to 750-word explanation regarding the role of plate tectonics in the origin of igneous rocks. | ORIGIN OF IGNEOUS ROCKS AND THE ROLE OF PLATE TECTONICS | |Igneous rocks form in three main places: where lithospheric plates pull apart at mid-ocean ridges, where plates come together at | |seduction zones and where continental crust is pushed together, making it thicker and allowing it to heat to melting. There are two| |ideas about igneous rocks that are geologically important. The first idea is that igneous rocks evolve - they change from one kind | |of rock into another. The second idea is that rocks are not randomly distributed across the earth. Specific kinds of rocks are | |always found in specific places for specific reasons, all tied into plate tectonic processes. Igneous rocks begin as hot, fluid | |material, and the word "igneous" comes from the Latin for fire. This material may have been lava erupted at the Earth's surface, or| |magma (un-erupted lava) at shallow depths, or magma in deep bodies (plutons). People commonly think of lava and magma as a liquid, | |like molten metal, but geologists find that magma is usually a mush — a liquid carrying a load of mineral crystals. Magma | |crystallizes into a collection of minerals, and some crystallize sooner than others. Not just that, but when they......

Words: 1045 - Pages: 5

History of Rock Worksheet

...Material Comparison Worksheet Use the following table to compare extrusive and intrusive rocks. Describe and compare each type in at least 150 words. Extrusive Rock Intrusive Rock Extrusive igneous rocks are formed at the crust's surface as a result of the partial melting of rocks within the mantle and crust. Extrusive Igneous rocks cool and solidify quicker than intrusive igneous rocks. When lava is exposed to the atmosphere or water outside of the earth, this causes the lava to cool very rapidly in comparison to intrusive rocks. This rapid cooling does not allow the rock time to form large crystals in the way that intrusive rocks do. Extrusive rocks have a fine-grained texture known to geologists as aphanitic, because the mineral crystals present within the rock are very small. It is much more difficult to distinguish between the different types of extrusive igneous rocks than between different types of intrusive igneous rocks because the minerals are mostly fine-grained. Examples of extrusive igneous rocks are basalt and obsidian. Rhyolite is the extrusive counterpart of granite due to its high silica concentration, but fine-grained texture. One form of igneous rocks, intrusive rocks, derives directly from magma and solidifies within the earth. Since intrusive rocks are within the earth, they cool very slowly, taking anywhere from thousands to millions of years to cool enough to completely solidify. The cooling rate of intrusive rocks enables the......

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Mineral Lab Worksheet

...Part 1: Recording Observations In the following chart, record your observations of each test for the seven minerals. After you have completed all tests, name the minerals in Part 2 of this worksheet. An example of how to fill out the chart is illustrated follows. Recorded Observations for Minerals 1-7 Tests Example Mineral 1 Mineral 2 Mineral 3 Mineral 4 Mineral 5 Mineral 6 Mineral 7 Color White Gold Green White Pink White White Black Streak White Black White White White White White Brown Luster Shiny Shiny Specks Shiny Specks Shiny Dull Shiny Shiny Shiny Specks Specific Gravity 3.18 5.1 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.65 2.4 2.2 Cleavage & Fracture Cleavage Fracture Fracture Cleavage Fracture Fracture Cleavage Fracture Hardness 4 3.1-5.4 1-2.9 1-2.9 3.1-5.4 6.1-10 1-2.9 1-2.9 Acid No Reaction No Reaction No Reaction Active bubbling and Fizz No reaction No reaction No Reaction Light bubbling and fizz Part 2: Naming the Minerals Name the minerals in the following table. Then, insert a percentage of how certain you are in your identification. Finally, explain your percentage of certainty: What was confusing about this mineral? What other minerals do you think it could be? Remember, the minerals include seven of the following: borax, calcite, corundum, graphite, gypsum, orthoclase feldspar, pyrite, quartz, talc, and topaz. Identification of Mineral Percent Certain Explanation of Certainty Example: Fluorite 80% certain I am almost certain this mineral is fluorite, but I am...

Words: 1502 - Pages: 7

Sedimentary Rocks

...| Sedimentary Rocks | Sci. 245 Week 5 Assignment | | Bree Odion | 7/24/2011 | | SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Introduction to Sedimentary Rocks The most common rock on Earth’s surface is sedimentary. Sandstone, limestone, and salt are all forms of sedimentary rocks to name a few. (National Atlas of the United States n.d.) This paper will explore the origination of sedimentary rocks; categories associated with sedimentary rocks; and compare the distinguishing characteristics of the three. The discussion will also include how sedimentary rocks are formed and affect of plate tectonics on rocks. Sedimentary rocks are our best records today of how our earth is changing everyday and the best to describe to us why it is changing. Not only can geologists tell based on the shape, and deposits made of sediment but we can tell by the fossils that are made within the sediment rock. This allows us to know things about our earth from billions of years ago that we may have not known if h had not been for sediment. Where Sedimentary Rocks Originate Sedimentary rocks originate from the weathering and erosion of pre-existing rocks. When sediment is deposits it lithifies to create new rocks. Sedimentary rocks occur when sediments, weathered fragments from older rocks as well as biological debris like leaves, trees, and dead animals, are deposited and stay in place long enough for rock to form. It is known that sedimentary rocks contain sandstones, shale’s, and coal......

Words: 792 - Pages: 4

Sedimentary Rock Worksheet

...Associate Level Material Sedimentary Rock Worksheet Use the following table to describe and distinguish between the effects of weathering and erosion. Each response must be at least 200 words. |Effects of Weathering |Effects of Erosion |What are the Differences? | |Weathering is a process in which the |Erosion is a natural process and can be |The main difference between these two | |surface of rock starts to break down. Two |healthy for the ecosystem. When material is|processes seems to be that while weathering| |types of weathering exist: chemical and |removed from one location, it is inevitably|causes effects at the site of the rock, | |mechanical. |placed somewhere else; this is called |erosion causes effects at a site other than| |Chemical weathering occurs when the rock |deposition. Both erosion and deposition are|that which was weathered. Weathering | |begins to break down and the chemical |natural processes. But when human |involves two processes that often work in | |composition changes as a result. These |activities substantially alter, increase or|concert to decompose rocks. Both processes | |chemical reactions break down the bonds |impede the natural movement of sediment, |occur in place. No movement is involved in | |holding the rocks together, causing them to|serious damage can occur. As stated,......

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Sedimentary Rocks

...Sedimentary Rocks Your Name Plate tectonics affect where sediment falls to the way that rocks are formed from the sediment. There are three different types of sediment rocks that are created in a similar manner but actual make up of each sediment rock is very different. There is clastic sediment that will form clastic sedimentary rock, chemical sediment that will form chemical sedimentary rock, and then there is Biogenic sediment that will eventually form Biogenic sedimentary rock. This happens in many different ways and plate tectonics help this process all along the way. “Divergent margins create rift valleys and passive continental margins. Colliding tectonic plates create structural basins and valleys associated with mountain ranges as a result of the folding and faulting of rock. Subducting plates form deep oceanic trenches along with volcanic arcs that may have back-arc basins. All of these locations are effective traps for sediment.” (From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock, 2008). Convergent plate boundaries can usually be found on the edges of high mountain ranges due to plate collisions. When pieces of the mountain breaks off it falls to low-lying areas as gravel and sand. Convergent plate boundaries lie in very low-lying trenches caused by the subduction of plates. The sediment will pile up quickly because these areas are so steep. Once sediment has settled it will then begin the process in becoming a rock. Sediment goes through a process call......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Sedimentary Rock Worksheet

...Associate Level Material Sedimentary Rock Worksheet Use the following table to describe and distinguish between the effects of weathering and erosion. Each response must be at least 200 words. |Effects of Weathering |Effects of Erosion |What are the Differences? | |Weathering breaks down and decomposes |Erosion removes materials from the surface |The difference between weathering and | |rocks. There are chemical and mechanical |and changes it into something else. The |erosion is no movement is involved in | |types of weathering. The mechanical version|hydraulic actions transport solid material |weathering. If an item is loosened | |of weathering breaks down rock material |such as sedimentary rocks from one area to |mechanically or chemically and stays in the| |into smaller pieces with no chemical |another area where it is then deposited. |same place in which it happens the process | |composition of the weathered material. |Erosion degrades the land. When the land or|of weathering has occurred. If the | |Chemical weathering breaks down rocks using|road get better grades are degraded it |weathered item starts to move, for instance| |a chemical agent; acid rain is an example |causes excessive damage over time. Erosion |the movement could be caused by wind, or in| |of chemical weathering. Biological |could cause cities, towns, and tax......

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Sci245 R6 Sedimentary Rock Worksheet

...Associate Level Material Sedimentary Rock Worksheet Use the following table to describe and distinguish between the effects of weathering and erosion. Each response must be at least 200 words. |Effects of Weathering |Effects of Erosion |What are the Differences? | |Through mechanical and chemical weathering |Erosion is a term that describe the |Weathering involves two processes that | |of exposed rocks on Earth's surface chunks |transport of regolith from one place to |often work in concert to decompose rocks. | |of once embedded in bedrock are now exposed|another as oppose to weathering which |Both processes occur in place. No movement | |to the elements and over time they break |happens in place. Both processes can |is involved in weathering. Chemical | |down. Feldspar crystals in granite break |happen at the same time where weathering |weathering involves a chemical change in at| |down to form clay minerals. Other materials|can cause and rock to break down and then |least some of the minerals within a rock. | |such as quartz break down into sand which |materials from that are then transported |Mechanical weathering involves physically | |varies in grain sizes. "Seditment with |elsewhere by the wind in an erosion |breaking rocks into fragments without | |grain sizes between those of sand and clay |process. Fluids that cause the most......

Words: 942 - Pages: 4