Scaling

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sachinacharya27
Words 337
Pages 2
Measurement Scales

Selection of a Measurement Scale
Depends on
 Research Objectives

 Response Types
 Data Properties  Number of dimensions

 Balanced or unbalanced
 Forced or unforced choices  Number of scale points  Rater errors

Research Objectives
 To measure characteristics of participants

 To use participants as judges

Response Types
 Rating Scale- an object  Ranking Scale – Comparing exterior look of two cars  Categorization- respondents ethnic background  Sorting- sorting cards regarding features of a car

Data Properties
 Nominal- data without order, distance or unique

origin  Ordinal- indicate more than or less than, but no distance or unique origin indication  Interval – have order and distance but unique origin  Ratio – have all these properties

Number of Dimensions
 Uni dimensional

 Multidimensional

Balanced or Unbalanced
 Balanced Rating Scale- has an equal number of

categories above and below the mid point

 Unbalanced Rating Scale- has an unequal number of

favorable and unfavorable response choices

Examples
 Very Good – Good – Average – Poor – Very Poor

 Poor- Fair – Good- Very Good – Excellent

Forced or Unforced
 Forced

 Unforced

Forced Choices
 No options like – No opinion, undecided, don’t

know, uncertain, neutral etc.
 When many participants do not have opinion, this

may results in forced-choice scale bias

Number of Scale Points
 Different scales needed for different

products/services
 Low involvement product/ service can be judged

using 3 point scale
 For high involvement products 5 or more points may

be necessary

Rater Errors
 Error of central tendency – some raters are reluctant

to give extreme judgments
 Error of leniency- Soft Raters
 Halo Effect -

Rating Scales
 Simple Attitude Scales –

…...

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