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Sampling

A sample is drawn from a population, which refers to all possible cases of what the researcher is interested in studying. A sample consists of one or two elements selected from a population. To select a good sample we have to clearly define the population from which we will be drawing a sample. Failure to do so can result in inaccurate conclusions. In probability sampling each element has an equal chance of inclusion. The simplest technique for probability samples is Simple Random Sampling. Simple random sampling treats the target population as a unitary whole. We might start off with a sampling frame which has a list of the whole population—or as much information as we can obtain. Next we would number the elements in the sampling frame sequentially and select elements from the list randomly. We would not know what the outcome would be, but each has an equal shot at being chosen. We can also program the computer to choose a random sample. Researchers may also use non probability sampling. In this type of sampling the researcher does not know the probability of each population’s elements inclusion in the sample (Dejong, 2011).

Data Collection

There are many different ways to collect data for research. Measures differ from one another in terms called levels of measurement. Nominal measures classify observations into mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories. They represent nominal variables such as sex, ethnicity, religion, and political party preferences. For the purpose of data collection a number might be assigned to each category. Ordinal measures are at a higher value then nominal numbers because categories have a fixed order. Interval measures share the characteristics of ordinal scales, mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories and an inherit order, but have equal spacing between the categories.…...

...Variables Sampling 689 I have edited a portion of Module G from your textbook so that it more closely follows my lecture. I need to acknowledge that this is not my original work and much of it is taken word for word from the 2nd edition of Auditing & Assurance Services by Louwers, Ramsay, Sinason and Strawser. Tad Miller Classical Variables Sampling LEARNING OBJECTIVE Understand the basic process underlying classical variables sampling in an audit examination. When performing substantive procedures, one approach is classical variables sampling. Classical variables sampling methods use normal distribution theory and the Central Limit Theorem to provide a range estimate of the account balance. The auditor uses the sample estimates to determine whether the account balance is fairly stated. The Central Limit Theorem indicates larger sample sizes provide a sampling distribution that more closely reflects a normal distribution. Therefore, larger sample sizes will yield a lower level of sampling risk. In this section, we briefly illustrate mean-per-unit classical variables sampling. We illustrate the manual calculations necessary to determine sample size and evaluate sample results. However, if clients maintain records in electronic format, auditors typically use computer software to perform these tasks. Classical Variables Sampling: Planning In the planning stages of classical variables sampling, the auditor determines the objective of sampling, defines the......

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...SAMPLING Definition: the act, process, or technique of selecting a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. TYPES OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES: Cluster sampling Cluster sampling is a sampling technique where the entire population is divided into groups, or clusters and a random sample of these clusters are selected. All observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample. Cluster sampling is typically used when the researcher cannot get a complete list of the members of a population they wish to study but can get a complete list of groups or 'clusters' of the population. It is also used when a random sample would produce a list of subjects so widely scattered that surveying them would prove to be far too expensive, for example, people who live in different counties in the Country. Advantages One advantage of cluster sampling is that it is cheap, quick, and easy. Instead of sampling the entire country when using simple random sampling, the research can instead allocate resources to the few randomly selected clusters when using cluster sampling. A second advantage to cluster sampling is that the researcher can have a larger sample size than if he or she was using simple random sampling. Because the researcher will only have to take the sample from a number of clusters, he or she can select more subjects since they are more accessible. Disadvantages One main disadvantage of......

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...Sampling Techniques Psychology 341 August 11, 2013 ABSTRACT The present research paper was designed to discuss the different types of sampling methods used to conduct research in the field of Psychology. The sampling techniques included in this paper are probability sampling, non probability sampling, surveys and questionnaires. The use of examples for each type of technique is given to further the understanding of each specific type. Furthermore, some the most important aspects that should considered before selecting a method are outlined in detail. Sampling Techniques When conducting research, it is almost impossible to study the entire population that we are interested in looking at more in depth. For example, if we were interested in comparing the level of romantic satisfaction among college students in the United States, it would be practically impossible to survey every single person who is attending college in the country. Not only would it take an extremely long time to do so, but it would also be very expensive. That is why researchers will use small samples from the population to gather their data instead. A sample is particularly useful because it allows the researcher to make inferences about a specific population without having to actually survey the entire population (Trochim, 2006). There are several sampling techniques used to gather information about a sample. Some of these include probability sampling, non probability sampling, surveys, and......

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...Sampling Douglas P. Shumski April 27, 2014 MATH301-1402A-01 Susan Lee 1. In your own words, discuss the differences between discrete and continuous random variables because the statistical analysis of each type of variable is different. Discrete Variable – This type of variable is only in the form of a particular value, and does not consider any values that may fall in between each particular value. The example that I would provide here would be that I have two children. I do not have 2.8 children. Continuous Random Variable - This type of variable can take on any value that is available on a range. My example of this type of variable would be the measure of temperature. The temperature can be measured in tenths, such as 86.9 degrees, and not the whole number of 87 degrees. A person’s individual height or weight could also be considered as a continuous random variable. 2. Roll a die 20 times and record the event in Excel |Roll 1 |1 |Roll 11 |6 | |Roll 2 |5 |Roll 12 |5 | |Roll 3 |3 |Roll 13 |2 | |Roll 4 |6 |Roll 14 |4 | |Roll 5 |6 |Roll 15 |6 | |Roll 6 |3 |Roll 16 |3 | |Roll 7 |5 |Roll 17 |4 | |Roll 8 |4 |Roll 18 |6 | |Roll 9 |2 |Roll 19 |5 | |Roll 10 |1 ...

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...Sampling and Data Collection in Research Paper BSHS 435 Roxanne January 12, 2015 Heather Suggs Sampling and Data Collection in Research Paper Research is essential to improve the effectiveness of the delivery of human services and to further the education of human service professionals. Research allows human service professionals to understand and apply what was learned in research to better assisting clients to accomplish their objectives and goals. There are different ways to conduct research in human services. I will be discussing two ways to conduct research which are sampling and data collection. I will discuss the purpose of sampling and data collection and how it relates to human service. Sampling Sampling is one way to conduct research in human services. Sampling can be obtained from a certain population, depending on the research. The sample is generally composed of one or two elements which are obtained from the population being studied. In order to attain a preferable sample, first you have to identify the type of population to get a sample. In case you are not able to obtain a good sample, it is more likely to affect your conclusion. There are two types of sampling, which are probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Probability sampling can be used to achieve every element that has the opportunity to be incorporated in the sample. Probability sampling is usually done randomly like how people pull names out of a hat or drawing straws.......

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...Sampling Sampling Third Edition STEVEN K. THOMPSON Simon Fraser University A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permission. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and speciﬁcally disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or ﬁtness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives......

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...Sampling and Data Collection Plan QNT/561 Sampling and Data Collection Plan Newshore Medical Center is a manufacturer of pharmaceutical products that sells products to medical facilities throughout the United States. Our products encompass all aspects of life, from newborns to aging adults. Newshore Medical Center manufactures products from nutrition, medical supplies, and pharmaceuticals. The company recently incorporated a new division to manufacture diagnostic products. The goals of and objectives of data collection is to understand if a larger sales team would benefit for growth in the New England market. To do this we reached out to our customers in the New England area with a phone call and conducted a brief survey. The goal of the survey was to understand what was their preferred provider, and why. Was it cost? Availability of product? The real question we need answered above all is it because we need to have a more accommodating sales team for just that area. All data collection and measurement has been accurate and stable. Newshore Medical Center has 3,000 customers they supply to in the New England area. We were able to reach 75% of those customers. That is 2,250 customers that we were able to survey. The survey was approximately 15 minutes long. Out of the 2,250 customers, regions are formed to understand if one region is different than another. The regions include northern Maine, southern Maine, Costal Maine, east Massachusetts, west......

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...Sampling and Data Collection Plan Shelly Resendez QNT 561 July 20, 2015 Ranjit Rebello TKMSA is our teams real estate company that sells condominiums to the public. TKMSA collects data that reflects trends that will help to increase sales and the profit margin. TKMSA will use a sample of its 1000 condominiums in Florida and will use the stratified sampling. This sampling will use the sub populations of ocean view and floor level in regards to the selling price of each unit. Target Population and Reasoning TKMSA is looking to build another condominium complex off the ocean front of Tampa Bay and the data used can help to determine the selling price of certain units based off the floor level and view. This gathered information will help TKMSA market to a certain type of the population and to decide if this is an actual profitable place to build. Sampling Element TKMSA will conduct a data mining process that will gather information regarding the selling price for floor level, view, demographics of the unit and the furnishings within the condo. Sampling theory is the field of statistics that is involved with the collection, analysis and interpretation of data gathered from random samples of a population under study. Not only is the theory concerned with selecting the proper observations but also uses the probability theory for analyzing the data from the sample to develop conclusions ("Sampling Theory", 2015)....

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...Sampling and Data Collection Plan QNT 561 August 3, 2014 Kevin Masick Sampling and Data Collection Plan. Customer service is an important part of any business and can mean the success or failure of a business. It is important to know that a business cannot make everyone happy but can do everything in their ability to make improvement in areas where customer service is lacking. Express Card (EC) customer service call center has declined in customer satisfaction in the last five years. Because of this finding Express Card has requested an independent research team to do a study to analyze data from two different data sets and formulate a plan of action towards the problems Express Card is facing. Population and size The population and size are determined by the estimated 40 million Express Card members. Since this is a large population size it is important to properly calculate the proper confidence level. The research team has selected a 95% confidence with 5% margin of error. Target Population and Brief Reasoning The target population, also called target audience, is the group of people the research team has chosen to get the necessary data from and form a conclusion. In order to have a logic model, the team will first need to identify the people surveyed and must be as specific as possible. The research will help establish areas where Customer Service is successful and where improvement is needed. The target group will be those......

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...Sampling and data collection in research paper BSHS/435 January 18 2016 Sampling and data collection in research paper Introduction In this essay, I will discuss two ways for him to service professional to conduct research through sample lien and data collection. Through the use of research and he was there's a vessel can be better assist their clients ensuring their clients have the skills needed to reach their goals and objectives. What is the purpose of sampling Sampling allows the human service professional to research one narrow topic at a time instead of a whole group "A major reason for studying samples rather than the whole group is that the whole group sometimes is so large that studying it is not feasible" ( Monette, D. R., Sullivan T. J., & DeJong, C. R. (2011). A human service professional will receive better information through sampling; a sample is one or more elements of a population. The characteristics of probability and nonprobability "Probability sampling techniques is too sure that each element has an equal chance of inclusion"(Monette, D. R., Sullivan T. J., & DeJong, C. R. (2011). There are four aspects of probability sampling, simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and area sampling. When probability sampling is not always the appropriate technique to use "Nonprobability sample's in which the investigator does not know the probability of beads populations elements inclusion in the......

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...Sampling and Data Collection Plan The Human Resource Manager for Save-More believes that employees on the back shift are less satisfied than employees on the front shift. The organization defines the front shift as 7am to 7pm, with the back shift covering 7pm to 7am. To determine if this belief is accurate, Save-More will collect a validation survey questionnaire from all employees. As satisfaction is abstract, responses from the employees are operationalized to Very Satisfied, Satisfied, In Different, Dissatisfied, and Very Dissatisfied. Dependent and Independent Variables, Hypothesis, and Research Question For this project, the dependent variable (DV) is employee satisfaction and the independent variable (IV) is a specific shift. The hypotheses are as follows: H1: There is a relationship between employee satisfaction (DV) and specific shift (IV). Ho: There is no relationship between employee satisfaction (DV) and specific shift (IV). The research question states; is there a direct correlation between an employee’s satisfaction level (DV) and the specific shift worked, such as front or back shift (IV)? Population, Target Population, and Reasoning The survey will be provided to employees via the intranet, with a completion timeframes of seven days. The population size is 134 Save-More employees. The target population is front shift and back shift employees. The survey respondents are full-time employees with of minimum of 6 months employment. Sampling......

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...BSHS 435 Week 2 Sampling and Data Collection To purchase this visit here: http://mindsblow.us/question_des/BSHS435Week2SamplingandDataCollection/2788 Contact us at: help@mindblows.us BSHS 435 Week 2 Sampling and Data Collection in Research Paper BSHS 435 Week 2 • Student described observation and measurement as they relate to human services research. • Student addressed each of the following points in the paper: o Sampling • What is the purpose of sampling? • How can you avoid bias when selecting samples for human services research? o Data Collection • Describe the scales of measurement used in research • What are the types of reliability? Provide examples of the types of reliability as they apply to human services research or to human services management research. • What are the types of validity? Provide examples of these types of validity as they apply to human services research or to human services management research. • Why is it important to ensure that data collection methods and instruments are both reliable and valid? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of: Telephone surveys Online surveys Focus groups Surveys via websites Which of the above examples of survey research you would like to use if you are collecting data and why? • The paper is 700 to 1,050 words in length. • The introduction provides sufficient background on the topic and previews major points. • The conclusion is logical, flows, and reviews the major points. BSHS 435......

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...merits of alternative sampling frames. Suggest most appropriate one and justify your selection. Research population is the target population on which a study or research is conducted through various different methods inorder to reach a conclusion from the data generated. It is for the benefit of the population directly or indirectly. But, due to very large size of research population, it is not feasible to test all the individuals of the population since it will take too much time and will be expensive as well. So the researchers take few individuals from the research population ( a subset of the set of target population) using sampling techniques. These techniques helps to take out sample as per the requirements of the type of research that is to be conducted. A research population is also known as a well-defined collection of individuals or objects known to have similar characteristics. All individuals or objects within a certain population usually have a common, binding characteristic or trait. Usually, the description of the population and the common binding characteristic of its members are the same. "Government officials" is a well-defined group of individuals which can be considered as a population and all the members of this population are indeed officials of the government. There are various sources from which a sample is created. A set of all these sources is called a Sampling frame from which the sample is selected. With the help of sampling frames,......

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...Unit 3 – Sampling Teri Isbell American InterContinental University Abstract Three different types of surveys will be discussed for sample size and how they compare to each other. A personal survey’s information is provided and the breakdown of the answers is shown in charts for review. A personal opinion regarding how survey information can be used with a business or other service is discussed. Introduction An entertainment, political, and general survey will be examined for sample size and discussed in this paper. A personal survey will also be reviewed and additional information will be discussed as to how they relate to each other and how the information could be used in a business or other setting. Part 1: Survey Analysis: Entertainment Social gaming is taking the desktop and console gaming world to new heights by attracting gamers that might not have every touched a video game before according to Shaer, (2010). He reports that 56.8 million American consumers over the age of 6 had participated in social game playing over the past three months. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the 2010 population was 281,421,906, and Shaer’s 56.8 million consumers represent approximately 20% of the overall population. I was surprised to find the accuracy in Shaer’s numbers representing one-fifth of the U.S. population in 2010. That is a staggering number of people doing nothing more than playing games! To further understand the impact these numbers have on social......

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...SAMPLING: In statistics and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. The three main advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower, data collection is faster, and since the data set is smaller it is possible to ensure homogeneity and to improve the accuracy and quality of the data. The sampling process comprises several stages: * Defining the population of concern * Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure * Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame * Determining the sample size * Implementing the sampling plan * Sampling and data collecting PROBABILITY AND NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING: A probability sampling scheme is one in which every unit in the population has a chance (greater than zero) of being selected in the sample, and this probability can be accurately determined. The combination of these traits makes it possible to produce unbiased estimates of population totals, by weighting sampled units according to their probability of selection. Non-probability sampling is any sampling method where some elements of the population have no chance of selection (these are sometimes referred to as 'out of coverage'/'under covered'), or where the probability of selection can't be accurately determined. It involves the selection of elements based on assumptions......

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