Intermediate Accounting Solutions

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Chapter 3 The Balance Sheet and Financial Disclosures

Questions for Review of Key Topics

Question 3-1

The purpose of the balance sheet, also known as the statement of financial position, is to present the financial position of the company on a particular date. Unlike the income statement, which is a change statement that reports events occurring during a period of time, the balance sheet is a statement that presents an organized array of assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity at a point in time. It is a freeze frame or snapshot picture of financial position at the end of a particular day marking the end of an accounting period.

Question 3-2

The balance sheet does not portray the market value of the entity (number of common stock shares outstanding multiplied by price per share) for a number of reasons. Most assets are not reported at fair value, but instead are measured according to historical cost. Also, there are certain resources, such as trained employees, an experienced management team, and a good reputation, that are not recorded as assets at all. Therefore, the assets of a company minus its liabilities, as shown in the balance sheet, will not be representative of the company’s market value.

Question 3-3

Current assets include cash and other assets that are reasonably expected to be converted to cash or consumed during one year, or within the normal operating cycle of the business if the operating cycle is longer than one year. The typical asset categories classified as current assets include: — Cash and cash equivalents — Short-term investments — Accounts receivable — Inventories — Prepaid expenses

Question 3-4

Current liabilities are those obligations that are expected to be satisfied through the use of current assets or the creation of other current liabilities.…...

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