Gender Discrimination

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Gender and development- historical background
‹ Definitions up Mainstreaming gender throughout the Project Cycle Management (PCM) ›
Gender and development- historical background The United Nations Charter of 1945 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 established the first official worldwide recognition of women’s equality and non-discrimination on the basis on sex. However up until the late 1960’s the focus was on women’s reproductive roles, as women were seen as wives and mothers and their main issues were supposed to be obtaining access to food, contraceptives, nutrition and health care. The 70’s and 80’s marked a new phase in which the debate moved beyond women’s equality and the domestic sphere of women’s role as wives and mothers onto the global stage where the role of women was promoted as an aid for economic development. The important events such as the First World Conference for Women held in Mexico 1974, the UN decade for women “76-85” and the promotion of the Women In Development (WID) approach emphasised women’s right to development, recognition of women’s economic role in national economies and, most significantly, gave a voice to women in developing countries.
Some of the shortcoming of the approaches such as the WID applied in the 70’s were that they fell short of improving unequal relationships, and a significant number of projects were unsustainable as development projects failed to consider the multiple roles carried out by women, leading to a development model that in the end disadvantaged women. In the late 80’s the Gender and Development (GAD) approach was developed with the idea of improving the development model by “removing disparities in social, economic, and political balances between women and men as a pre-condition for achieving people-centred development” (GWA, 2006:11). However, since the 1990’s the…...

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