Europe After Ww1

In: Historical Events

Submitted By jorgenbrevik
Words 1769
Pages 8
The European Societies and Governments Over the Course of World War I From 1914 until 1918, World War I, with its center in Europe, was fought. All the major powers in the world were represented, fighting against each other in 2 types of alliances: the Allies (led by Russia, France, Italy and United Kingdom) and the Central Powers (led by Germany and Austria-Hungary.) 70 million professional and unprofessional soldiers fought, with an approximated loss of 10 million people. This war caused huge upheavals in the European society, and I will now look into three different aspects that can be seen as a step in the direction of the modern Europe, that we have seen after World War II and continuously until today.
Once World War I started, a lot of men, many of them with passion for their own countries, left to defend their fatherlands. As the men went to the trenches, the women that were left at home had to start working or volunteering to keep the wheels spinning. What typically had to be done were jobs such as making uniforms for the soldiers, and working in hospitals that took care of hurt soldiers. According to the reading Four Weeks in the Trenches, Kreisler’s wife volunteered her services as a Red Cross nurse (Kreisler, page 11.) It was not completely revolutionary that the women were working, but now the job they did really got appreciated. It paid off after the war, and in countries such as Great Britain, Germany, the United States and the Soviet Union, the women was granted the right to vote in political contexts. Consequently, we could also see a change in the direction of a more liberate view on women’s behavior. They got out of their traditional role on the kitchen in the households, some became more sexual active outside their marriage during wartime, and they stood up for their rights.
Even though these rights and behaviors disappeared or were…...

Similar Documents


...NOTE #6: EUROPE (Patrick Ellwood, Fall, 2011) Page 1 NOTE #6 relates to Chapter 2 of the text. In Chapter 2 pay particular attention to the following pages: Map, p.44; Main Points, p.43; FIGURES 2.10 and 2.11, p.53; FIGURE 2.12, p.55; Wine, p.56 and 57; Europe’s Golden Triangle, p.62 and 63; The Southern Crescent, p.65; FIGURE 2.29, p.71; A “European” Identity?, p.72; FIGURE 2.34, p.75; FIGURE 2.35, p.76; FIGURE 2.36, p.77; Future Geographies, p.77; FIGURE 2.37, p.78; Main Points Revisited, p.78. Movie: "Blue Danube" 1. Physical Geography The boundaries of Europe have been determined more by politics and culture than any physical barriers like mountains and rivers. Today, the eastern boundary is the western frontier of Russia following the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991. So countries like Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova are considered part of Europe. These countries had been forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940, but had previously been independent from Tsarist Russia since 1919. Moving westwards from Russia are some plainlands, but Europe mainly consists of a peninsula of Eurasia fragmented into smaller peninsulas (Scandinavian, Iberian, Balkan, and Italian) and large islands (Britain, Ireland, Sicily, Iceland and Sardinia). ( 1, pp.59-65 ) Europe has benefited from its location and major physical features. It has direct land and sea routes to Asia (through Southwest Asia, Middle East, and Africa (post 1488 around......

Words: 2479 - Pages: 10

Wilson’s Stance During Ww1

...Cem Anil Kenar HIST104A-B02 Spg12 Wilson’s Stance during WW1: From “He kept us out of the War” to “Make the World Safe for Democracy” As it is well-known the World War I was primarily of a war fought due to imperialist aims, stemming from the need to satisfy the demand for raw material in the Europe. With the industrial revolution urge for raw material became of crucial importance for the European states. This was followed by the aggressive colonization projects that eventually led to a harsh competition between different parties around Europe, who want to hold control over the economic resources. The United States was not a super-power, as it is now, at the time of the War. Being aware of this Wilson opted to remain as a neutral observer during the initial phase of the war. It was the third year of the war, when the British intelligence intercepted the coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on 16 January 1917. While the two blocs, The Entente Powers (France, The British Empire and Russia) vs. The Central Powers, (Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire), were fairly evenly balanced between 1914 and 1917, with the year 1917 the Central Powers started to be weakened due to several reasons. The Americans were convinced that the Central Powers were doomed to lose the war, when the Zimmermann telegram was revealed. Therefore, Wilson aspired to take advantage of these circumstances and use the telegram as a......

Words: 2049 - Pages: 9

Propaganda During Ww1

... ------------------------------------------------- How Propaganda Swayed the Public Opinion During World War I Rachel Corona Abstract World War 1 proved America to be the nation producing the highest amount of propaganda. Through his use of propaganda President Wilson was able to draw American Support for the war. Despite his being elected as the “peace” president. Many Americans believed he’d keep them out of the war, especially after he stated that, “so far as I can remember, this is a government of the people, and this people is not going to choose war.” Before his election, Wilson promoted American neutrality. He pushed for what he believed his Americans wanted. However, through his employment of propaganda, Woodrow Wilson was able to convince the American people to join the ranks, he persuaded Americans into accepting rations for food, he involved women in the war effort, he was even able to sway them into buying government bonds (liberty bonds) to fund the war. In the end, through his use of propaganda, President Woodrow Wilson was ironically able to change the popular American opinion and convince Americans to support World War 1. Propaganda, as defined by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is the “spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person.” It is always biased towards a view or idea. Governments employ propaganda to sway public opinions towards supporting a cause. The use of......

Words: 2875 - Pages: 12

Outbreak of Ww1

...‘Made in St Petersburg’. Discuss this assessment of the outbreak of general European war in 1914. The spark that led directly to the outbreak of war was the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. The events that took place in Europe prior to 1914 have to be focused upon as being pivotal motives in the outbreak of war. Russia deeply influenced and played a key role in the outbreak of World War One, but it is difficult to say she was the sole cause. The different alliance groups, Nationalism, economic stability, domestic tensions and the divergent Foreign Policies in the Central European countries were collectively the reasons that brought about a general European war. Russia’s history preceding 1914 constituted to the decision making of the July Crisis. The Russo-Japanese war of 1904 left Russia defeated and powerless both economically and militarily. [1]‘Russia suffered 400,000 casualties, lost two of its three fleets and denuded its western frontier fortifications of troops and armaments.’ The defeat to Japan caused Russia a major embarrassment and Russia was intent on building up her military strength for the countries social security. By 1910 the ‘Small Program’ followed by the 1913 launch of the ‘Great Program’ enabled Russia to add additional spending to the army and military but Russia’s military strength still lacked its initial power. World War One may have been a way in for Russia to regain her......

Words: 2383 - Pages: 10

Assess the Impact of the Continental System on Europe After 1806

...Assess the impact of the Continental System on Europe after 1806 “England is a nation of Shopkeepers”- Napoleon Bonaparte It was on the 21st of November 1806 that Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, issued the Berlin Decrees; beginning a self-blockade of Europe that would last to some extent or another, for the next 8 years until his abdication on April 11th 1814. Bonaparte is purported to have believed that his policy of Blocus Continental would lead to inflation and large-scale debt within Britain, and while his desired impact of the Continental System unto the UK was not quite so dramatic, the affects that Napoleon intended as a result of the Berlin Decrees were extremely significant in terms of their impact upon Europe. However, there were also numerous consequential impacts of the Continental System which need to be examined if an objective assessment of its impacts upon Europe is to be made; aided by the classification of impacts into short and long term and positive or negative. The Continental System was intended as a way in which Bonaparte could force Britain into a peace, but its primary effect was that of alienation. After the Milan Decrees (17th December, 1807) endorsed and actively legislated for the capture of neutral ships sailing in international waters if they had traded at a British Port, carried British goods; or merely had allowed the Royal Navy to search their ship. This effectively changed the way in which trade worked across the......

Words: 3473 - Pages: 14


...1. Europe is the second smallest continent in the world and consists of just 4 million square miles. 2. Europe unlike some continents is designated for political more than geographical reasons. 3. 700 million people live in Europe. However birth rates are relatively stagnant – and has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world. 4. However despite being low in fertility, Europeans are high in generosity and the ten most generous countries in terms of charities are all European. One of the more positive facts about Europe. 5. Much of the shape of Europe is a result of World War 1 and 2. The First World War caused the complete alteration or dissolution of four empires – the German, Ottoman, Russian and Austro-Hungarian. World War 2 meanwhile resulted in the death of 2.5 percent of the world’s population. 6. One of the most interesting facts about Europe is that it is believed that Europe is named originally after ‘Europa’ who was a Phoenician Princess from Greek Mythology. 7. The smallest country in Europe is The Vatican city – actually only 110 acres in total and with a population of just more than 800. It is located within Rome and is the home of Catholicism. Meanwhile the largest country in Europe is Russia (though Russia is only partially European) with an area of 17,098,242km2. These are also the smallest and largest countries in the world. One of the most interesting facts about Europe then is that it includes the smallest and......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Ww1 Questions

...History WW1 Questions 1) What were the war plans? In the First World War Germany and France had both made plans for attack. Germany had the ‘Schlieffen Plan’ and the French had ‘Plan 17’. The ‘Schlieffen Plan’ was simple, yet risky. The plan was to send German soldiers through Belgium and into France very quickly. The Germans were supposed to swoop around France and take the French army by surprise. This as time tells did not work out for the Germans. The French also had a plan called ‘Plan 17’. This was to launch a direct attack upon Germany through Alsace-Lorraine. On the 20th of August the German forces defending the frontier cut the attacking French troops to shreds using their artillery. The French lost 200,000 men within only 12 days and decided to abort ‘Plan 17’. 2) Explain the flaws in the initial plans There were many flaws in both the ‘Schlieffen Plan’ and ‘Plan 17’. The ‘Schlieffen Plan’ was a very flawed plan mainly because it was revised multiple times making it weaker and weaker. The ‘Schlieffen Plan’ was continuously revised and the wing to go through Belgium was considerably reduced in size so it can then protect Germany. This then meant that if Belgium gave any resilience then their numbers could then be further reduced. Unfortunately for the Germans luck was not on their side and Belgium held them back long enough for England to arrive and help them. This then made Germans army massively reduced and their plan was starting to crumble. They......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Ww1 Essay

...Examine the impact of the Congress of Berlin (1878) on political development in Europe up to 1914. After the outbreak of the Balkan Crisis in 1875, Russia sent troops to help the Balkans to get independence from the control of the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War in 1877. She defeated the Turks and forced them to sign the Treaty of San Stefano in 1878. Being afraid of the increase in the Russian influence and power, the powers called the Congress of Berlin in 1878. Although it was held to settle the issues in the Balkans, the political development in Europe was greatly affected. By the Treaty of San Stefano, the Russian influence in the Balkan could increase tremendously. An autonomous ‘Big Bulgaria’ was created under Russian occupation for 2 years. It would inevitably be a mere Russian satellite, a facade for Russian dominance of the Balkans and a springboard from which a Russian attack on Constantinople could be launched at any time. Secondly, Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro were to obtain their independence. Since Russia helped them to get independence, she could win their respect and friendship. Thirdly, Russia could get S. Bessarabia, and so she could control the Danube delta. On the whole, the Russian influence in the Balkans was enhanced. It fulfilled her desire for an expansion into this region. However, the European powers could not tolerate this situation. None could like to see that the balance of power was to be upset by the arrangements made by......

Words: 1080 - Pages: 5

Ww1 Wikipedia

...World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. From the time of its occurrence until the approach of World War II in 1939, it was called simply the World War or the Great War, and thereafter the First World War or World War I.[5][6][7] In America it was initially called theEuropean War.[8] More than 9 million combatants were killed; a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was the fifth-deadliest conflict in world history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.[9] The war drew in all the world's economic great powers,[10] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on theTriple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy had also been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance.[11] These alliances were both reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire andBulgaria the Central Powers. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the...

Words: 344 - Pages: 2


...wide range of customers due to the ideology that the price is low. Upon conducting research amongst various well known retailers of Muller Rice, such as Asda, Tesco and Sainsbury’s. The average price to consume a Muller Rice Yoghurt multipack is £3.72, excluding all discounted offers. This allows us to establish that Muller is not a high end chilled desert brand, but instead a brand that has low prices to attract a wide range of customers. This is done through reducing costs on the basic production inputs such as packaging, ingredients and manufacturing processes. However, reducing the costs of the inputs, can have a negative effect on the quality of the output, Muller Rice Yoghurt. Place Muller is a well-established and highly sought-after brand which is readily available in many locations. The company itself originates from Germany, where the head offices are located, but the manufacturing of their products occurs in Shropshire, which is also their main port of distribution to all the retailers throughout the UK. This is highly beneficial for the company, mainly due to the aspect of reducing and maintaining the minimal amount of cost possible. Having their main warehouse in the UK allows for transport and distribution costs to be low, therefore maximising their profit per unit. Muller Rice yoghurts are available in many locations. All supermarkets, both low-end such as Aldi and high-end such as Waitrose, stock them. This allows for consumers to locate them and......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2


...of the political spectrum. Major cleavages also classify the party system of France. Among the most significant of these cleavages is between the church and the state. In particular, the church and state cleavage splintered the left into the old left, concerned with 19th century ideas involving the role of the church and republicanism, and the new left, concerned with socialism and workers’ issues. The inability of some of the new left to work with the old left further splintered the Left, and became a major factor in the establishment of multiple political parties. Perhaps to no other European country is the role of parties more important in shaping state policy than to Germany. In the post World War II period, parties reemerged after years of single-party Nazi rule. The Allies licensed parties and the first, and therefore, oldest became the Social Democratic Party. The Christian Democratic Union, a moderate-right party, formed in reaction. Along with the small centrist Free Democratic Party, these parties comprised the “two-and-a-half” major parties of German politics. During the 1980s and 1990s, two new parties emerged and challenged the “two-and-a-half: the Bundis ‘90/Greens and the Left Party. The German multiparty system has a stabilizing factor and is able to keep out smaller parties by including a rule that parties must receive at least five percent in order to be seated. Furthermore, parties on the ballot must be democratic or otherwise are not......

Words: 1482 - Pages: 6

Ww1 Reaseach Paper

...the archduke, Franz Ferdinand. Other causes were imperialism, which is when one country is dominating another; nationalism, which is an intense pride for one’s homeland; and militarism, which is the building up of military weapons.” “ Alliances also contributed to the war because when they signed an alliance with another county they gave each other their help if they needed it. Then Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia. Germany declared war on France two days later; they went through Belgium, which was neutral. Great Britain declared war on Germany after France was attacked. Then Austria-Hungary declared war on England and WW1 began”( “The countries that were involved in WW1 that were Central Powers were Turkey, Bulgaria, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. Other countries involved that were allies were Italy, Japan, Russia, Romania, Portugal, Greece, and Great Britain. Some countries that were in WW1 were Belgium, Brazil, China, Cuba, Estonia, Finland, Guatemala, Honduras, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Montenegro, Nicaragua, Panama, Poland, San Marino, and the U.S”( According to the American Republic “one alliance that existed was the Triple Alliance which united Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy as allies. Another alliance was the Triple Entente which made Great Britain, France, and Russia allies.” According to the American Republic “the U.S entered the was because of the sinking of the Lusitania, which was a British......

Words: 967 - Pages: 4

Europe After the Plague

...2015 Europeans after the 14th Century Plague The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, spread throughout Europe from 1347 to 1350. The disease was carried by rats, and therefore made living in large cities and towns much more dangerous due to their large rat populations. This disease killed around one third of Europe’s population. Because of the epidemic, people began to panic; they didn’t know what the cause of the illness was, so they tried to hide or burn entire homes or villages in order to eradicate it. Once the Black Plague died down, most of Europe’s infrastructure was destroyed and it took Europe around 150 years to rebuild. After the Black Death, Europeans were still very much scared. People obviously feared for their lives. Every now and then the epidemic would return and the people did not know why or where it came from. For many, they believed that it was a punishment from God, so they turned to their Bibles and Churches and Priests to try to atone for their sins in the hopes that they would either be spared or cured. Fear of infection also led many people to isolate themselves, which contributed to the chaos following the plague. This fear was rational, however, that rational fear turned to panic, and that panic turned into bizarre practices. People would whip themselves saying it was well deserved punishment from God or others would persecute strangers and minorities by claiming they were witches. The remaining citizens of Europe took up these......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

The Pulse of Europe 2009: 20 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall

...The Pulse of Europe 2009: 20 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall (Pew Research Center) End of Communism Cheered but Now with More Reservations Nearly two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall, publics of former Iron Curtain countries generally look back approvingly at the collapse of communism. Majorities of people in most former Soviet republics and Eastern European countries endorse the emergence of multiparty systems and a free market economy. However, the initial widespread enthusiasm about these changes has dimmed in most of the countries surveyed; in some, support for democracy and capitalism has diminished markedly. In many nations, majorities or pluralities say that most people were better off under communism, and there is a widespread view that the business class and political leadership have benefited from the changes more than ordinary people. Nonetheless, self reported life satisfaction has risen significantly in these societies compared with nearly two decades ago when the Times Mirror Center1 first studied public opinion in the former Eastern bloc. The acceptance of — and appetite for — democracy is much less evident today among the publics of the former Soviet republics of Russia and Ukraine, who lived the longest under communism. In contrast, Eastern Europeans, especially the Czechs and those in the former East Germany, are more accepting of the economic and societal upheavals of the past two decades. East Germans, in particular, overwhelmingly......

Words: 2845 - Pages: 12

Homefront in Ww1

...Home Front in WW1 Recruitment Volunteers * At beginning army was only small with only 250 000 men, needed 1 mill at least * Germany and enemies armies already bigger * Used propaganda * “pals battalions” large groups encouraged to sign up together as guaranteed to fight together * Half a million signed up In the first month * March 1916-2.5 mill volunteers * Downside * Families and towns lost all men * Questioned their return * Why did they join? * Posters * Get away from dull everyday life * Share in the excitement * Thought it their duty Conscription * Clear war not over by Christmas * Casualties had to be replaced, prepare from battle of the Somme November 1916 and replace thousands of dead after * Volunteers were running out – released harsh truths as people returned injured or not at all * Jan 1916 – unmarried men 18-40 * March 1916 – married men also * 1 in 3 conscripted between 1916 -18 * Meant gov had more control over work forces at home as the not conscripted were skilled workers that stayed to do jobs that couldn’t be replaced and helped the war effort Contentious objectors * Object to war for religious or humanitarian reasons * Had to convince a tribunal if they were genuine or coward * If convinced then they would help on the front line eg drive ambulances or war work at home eg mining * If rejected then sent to army, if......

Words: 945 - Pages: 4