Discuss the Issues Related to Genetic Diversity; Mutations, Sexual Reproduction, Migration, and Population Size.

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ASSIGNMENT 04
SC160 Basic Biology

Farah Shirmohammadi
AC1110896
09/18/2012
Discuss the issues related to genetic diversity; mutations, sexual reproduction, migration, and population size.

Generally speaking, there are numerous issues related to genetic diversity which include mutations, sexual reproduction, migration, and population size.

To begin with, mutations (any change in the DNA sequence of an organism) introduce new genetic information into a population by altering alleles (a form of a gene usually arising through mutation) that are already present. Occasionally, a mutation introduces a new allele into the gene pool of species. On the other hand, a mutation may introduce an allele that was deficient in a local population. Meanwhile, it is present in other populations of species. All the different alleles for a trait originated as a result of mutations sometime in the past and have been maintained within the gene pool of the species as they have been passed from generation to generation during reproduction. Many mutations are harmful, but very rarely one will occur that is valuable to the organism. If a mutation produces harmful allele, the allele will then remain uncommon in the population. For example, the “Anopheles” mosquito is responsible for transmitting malaria in many African counties. At some point in the past, mutations occurred in the DNA of these mosquitoes that made some individuals tolerant to the insecticide Pyrethrin, even before the chemical had been used. These alleles remained very rare in these insect populations until Pyrethrin was used. Then these alleles became very valuable to the mosquitoes that carried them. The mosquitoes that lacked the alleles for tolerance because the mosquitoes that lacked the allele for tolerance died when they came into contact with pyrethrin, more of the Pyrethrin-tolerant…...

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