Diabetes

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Submitted By chilli87
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I. Introduction
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a chronic disease that requires special and continuous medical care to prevent acute complications as well as to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Main subject of the diabetes care is to maintain glycemic level at normal range. According to ADA (American Diabetes Association), there are for clinical types of diabetes- 1. Type 1 diabetes (results from β-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency) 2. Type 2 diabetes (results from a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance) 3. Other specific types of diabetes due to other causes 4. Gestational diabetes mellitus
Table 1 Diabetes diagnostic criteria according to ADA guideline 1. | FPG ≥ 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l). Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 hrs. | | OR | 2. | Symptoms of hyperglycemia and a casual plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l). Casual is defined as any time of day without regard to time since last meal. The classic symptoms of hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, and unexplained weight loss. | | OR | 3. | 2-h plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) during an OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test). The test should be performed as described by the World Health Organization, using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75 g anhydrous glucose dissolved water. |
Source: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/31/Supplement_1/S12/T2.expansion.html
II. Management of Diabetes Mellitus
Since diabetes is a disease that affects multi-organ of the body, a physician-coordinated team is required in giving medical care for a diabetic patient. A complete medical evaluation of the patient’s condition needs to be done first as the management plan of diabetes should be formulated as an individualized therapeutic alliance among the patient…...

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