Data Protection Act 1998

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mlkmrbd
Words 326
Pages 2
Data Protection Act 1998
The data protection controls how your personal information is used by the government, organisations and businesses. this is the main piece of legislation that governs the protection of personal data in the UK.

There are strict rules that should be followed by everyone responsible for using data. These rules are called ‘data protection principles’ * The data should not be kept for longer than its necessary * It only should be used for the specific purpose and nothing more * It must be used fairly and lawfully * Must be used in a way that is adequate, relevant and not excessive * It must be kept safe and secure * It must be handled according to people’s data protection right * It must not be transferred outside the European Economic Area without adequate protection
There is stronger legal protection for more sensitive information, such as: * ethnic background * political opinions * religious beliefs * health * sexual health * criminal records
The data protection gives the right to any person to know what information the government or other organisations have about them. People can send a letter to the desired organisation and ask them about what information they have about them. the organisation is legally required to give a copy of the information to the person who’s asked for it.
However, there are some situations such as * the prevention, detection or investigation of a crime * national security or the armed forces * the assessment or collection of tax * judicial or ministerial appointments in these situations, the organisations are allowed to withhold the information and not say what information they have about the person.

Freedom of Information Act 2000
This is an Act of Parliament of the parliament of United Kingdom. It provides a public right access to the…...

Similar Documents

Consumer Protection Act

...In an era of free competition where 'Consumer is KING', show the need for consumer protection and whether the KING needs protection Contents 1. INTRODUCTION: 3 1.1. NEED FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION 4 1.2. THE PURPOSE OF CONSUMER PROTECTION 5 1.3. CONSUMERISM 5 1.4. CONSUMER RIGHTS 5 2. CONSUMER GUIDANCE SOCIETY OF INDIA (CGSI) 9 2.1. FUNCTIONS OF CGSI: 9 2.2. ACHIEVEMENTS & FEATURES: 10 3. CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT, 1986: 11 3.1. IMPORTANT FEATURES OF THE ACT: 11 3.2. CONSUMER 12 3.2.1. CONSUMER OF GOODS 12 3.2.2. CONSUMER OF SERVICES 16 3.3. COMPLAINT 18 3.3.1. CONSTITUTES OF A COMPLAINT 18 3.3.2. ELIGIBILITY FOR FILING A COMPLAINT 18 3.3.3. REQUIREMENTS OF A COMPLAINT 20 3.3.4. TIME FRAME WITHIN WHICH A COMPLAINT CAN BE FILED 21 3.3.5. RELIEF AVAILABLE AGAINST COMPLAINT 22 3.3.6. CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN A COMPLAINT CANNOT BE FILED 23 3.3.7. DISMISSAL OF FRIVOLOUS AND VEXATIOUS COMPLAINTS 24 3.4. UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICE AND RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICE 24 3.5. CONSUMER PROTECTION COUNCILS 28 3.6. DISPUTE SETTLEMENT THREE TIER MECHANISM 28 4. CASE STUDIES: 30 4.1. CASE 1: INDIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION V/S V.P. SHANTA AND OTHERS 30 4.2. CASE 2: MR. MAHAVIR D. CHOPDA VS SVKM’S NMIMS UNIVERSITY 33 5. GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES FOR PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS & STATISTICS 50 6. ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS 53 7. COMPARITIVE STUDY OF CPA IN INDIA AND BRAZIL: 55 8. CONCLUSION: 58 9. RECOMMENDATIONS 58 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 60 1. INTRODUCTION: In the...

Words: 18072 - Pages: 73

Consumer Protection Act

...THE INDIAN CONTRACT ACT,1872 ACT No. 9 OF 1872 1* [25th April, 1872.] Preamble WHEREAS it is expedient to define and amend certain parts of the law relating to contracts It is hereby enacted as follows - PRELIMINARY 1.Short title. 1) Short title.-This Act may be called the Indian Contract Act,1872. Extent,Commencements.-It extends to the whole of India 2*[except the State of Jammu and Kashmir];and it shall come into force on the first day of September, 1872. 3* Nothing herein contained shall affect the provisions of any Statute, Act or Regulation not hereby expressly repealed, nor any usage or custom of trade, nor any incident of any contract, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. 2)Interpretation-clause. In this Act the following words and expressions are used in the following senses, unless a contrary intention appears from the context :- (a) When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal: (b) When the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted. A proposal, when accepted, becomes a promise: (c) The person making the proposal is called the "promisor and the person accepting the proposal is called the It promisee ": (d) When, at the desire of the promisor, the promise or any other person has done or abstained from......

Words: 38526 - Pages: 155

Telecom Act 1998

...TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY 1998 Ministry of Post and Telecommunications Dhaka March 1998 1 GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY, 1998 1. PREFACE : The telecommunications1 sector in Bangladesh has been characterized By a very low level of penetration, limited capability to meet the growing demand, low level of investment and old outdated systems and technologies necessitating reactive remedial measures. In order to develop a national sound telecommunication infrastructure to support the economy and welfare of the country by providing telecommunication facilities on demand, assuring satisfactory quality of service and ensuring value to the customers , a sound National Telecommunication Policy is essential. This is also imperative to ensure the cost based pricing2 of the present as well as the future services to satisfy the need of specialized groups in particular and the public in general . With this in view, this new policy will ensure the orderly development of the telecommunications sector through the provision of services in all the areas of the country, to satisfy the unserviced demand 3 for telecommunications and to provide equitable opportunity and competition amongst the service providers. 2. VISION: The Strategic Vision of the Government is to facilitate Universal Telephone Service throughout the country and where there is a demand, all those value added services such as cellular mobile telephone paging,......

Words: 6423 - Pages: 26

Data Protection

...Date: 06/27/2012 A LONG-TERM STRATEGY FOR DATA PROTECTION AND DISASTER RECOVERY FOR THE BR-DB01 MySQL DATABASE SERVER by Francis Nicholas Introduction This document discusses the recommended option for a long-term strategy for data protection and disaster recovery for the Sentrana MySQL and Infobright databases. After extensive research, the following components will provide for a long-term strategy for data protection and disaster recovery for the MySQL database server: 1. MySQL Master-Slave database server replication[1]. 2. Full daily and a full weekly backup of all databases on the master and slave servers respectively. a. Differential/incremental backups plan is currently under investigation. This is because a lot of articles I came across during my research advised against it due to the nature of its complexity and the level of difficulty in it implementation. 3. A clean up plan[3] that includes the removal of any database backups older than 7 days on the master server and 7 weeks on the slave server respectively. MySQL Master-Slave Database Server Replication The MySQL Master-Slave database server replication enables one database server, called the master, to be replicated to one or more MySQL servers, called slaves[4]. In our case, the master server will start off as the BR-DB01 database server. The server currently acting as Appserver-05 in the MarketMover environment is upgradeable to meet the present system and storage requirements......

Words: 1031 - Pages: 5

Data Protection

...W A T S O N H A L L UK data retention requirements information data retention and disposal Watson Hall Ltd London 020 7183 3710 Edinburgh 0131 510 2001 info@watsonhall.com www.watsonhall.com Each type of data within an organisation should be identified and classified. Once this has been completed and during periodic reviews, it is necessary to define the retention and disposal policy. Business data records should be assessed for the statutory and legal requirements, business and accountability requirements and the risks associated with keeping or disposing of the data records. A records management system or schedule of data retention criteria can be used to document the data records, the requirements and the security controls needed for their identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention and disposal. There are a large number of statutes, case law and regulations defining how long some data must be kept for before it is destroyed — some of which are outlined on the following pages. A few requirements such as records of wages apply to almost all sectors, but we have listed some specific requirements for the communications, financial and governmental sectors. Other sectors have equally important requirements. The exact minimum retention period varies with the specific data type, and the starting date is often context related e.g. period from an event like an accident, retirement or the advertisement of a product. This document is based on the previous......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Telephone Protection Consumer Act

...Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA), 1991 Juel A. Todman BIS/220 Introduction to Computer Application and Systems June 16, 2014 Dr. David Wagner Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA), 1991 Advances in Information Technology have made access to sensitive information with great concern. Privacy has to be paramount as the internet broadens its horizon strategically. Various acts had to be implemented to protect the privacy of individuals. The act that I am going to talk about is the Telephone Consumer Act of 1991, (TPCA). The Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 was passed and enacted by Congress, in response to consumer concerns about the growing number of unsolicited telephone calls by telemarketers and the increasing use of automated and prerecorded messages. In response, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopted rules that require anyone making telephone solicitation calls to your home must provide their names, and the name of the person or company on whose behalf the call was being made. The rules also prohibited telephone solicitation calls to your home before 8 am or after 9 pm, and required telemarketers to comply with any do-not-call request you make directly to the caller during the solicitation call. The implementation of the National Do-Not-Call Registry informed Telemarketers that they had up to 31 days from the day you registered your telephone number to remove it from their call lists. In June 2003, the FCC supplemented...

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Data Protection and Recovery

...Data Protection and Recovery. Exist several ways to protect our data such having a good firewall to prevent attacks to our network or if we are looking to for a more strong way to protect the data, why not with the server we only give access using the MAC direction, this way only local computers in the network will be capable of accessing to the information in the network, if the server doesn’t recognize the MAC address, the server won’t share the information, this is one way to protect the data and we can combine this method with any other one. Data corruption, having the data storage in any server, can cause data corruption at any time, windows server or third parties software can cause data corruption, the is no 100% method to prevent data corruption, this is why having always a backup of all information is the only way to be sure our data is safe of corruption. To be sure data can be recovery safe and quick, it will be important to have a backup server or RAID system to make sure all our data is getting duplicated, now in days, is not only safe using one method to backup that the data, I will also recommend cloud backup system, these type of backups system can cost a lot money, but data loss in any company can lead to end of any institution. My way to handle the backups will be have a central data sever, where all the information will be send, this data server will a RAID setup, where all the data will be duplicated, with the RAID system backups will complete in real......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Consumer Protection Act

...Two Commentary on consumer protection act Consumer Protection Act Introduction 1.1 The moment a person comes into this would, he starts consuming. He needs clothes, milk, oil, soap, water, and many more things and these needs keep taking one form or the other all along his life. Thus we all are consumers in the literal sense of the term. When we approach the market as a consumer, we expect value for money, i.e., right quality, right quantity, right prices, information about the mode of use, etc. But there may be instances where a consumer is harassed or cheated. The Government understood the need to protect consumers from unscrupulous suppliers, and several laws have been made for this purpose. We have the Indian Contract Act, the Sale of Goods Act, the Dangerous Drugs Act, the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, the Indian Standards Institution (Certification Marks) Act, the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, the Standards of Weights and Measures Act, etc. which to some extent protect consumer interests. However, these laws require the consumer to initiate action by way of a civil suit involving lengthy legal process which is very expensive and time consuming. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 was enacted to provide a simpler and quicker access to redressal of consumer grievances. The Act for the first time introduced the concept of ‘consumer’ and conferred express additional rights on him. It is interesting to note that the Act doesn’t seek to protect......

Words: 18431 - Pages: 74

Data Protection

...DATA PROTECTION- what is this act? What it is for? Controls how your personal information is used by organisations, businesses or the government. It also imposes restriction on the transfer of data, also like placing the materials on the web. Everyone responsible for using data has to follow strict rules called data protection principles, they must make sure the information is: * used fairly and lawfully * used for limited, specifically stated purposes * used in a way that is adequate, relevant and not excessive * accurate * kept for no longer than is absolutely necessary * handled according to people’s data protection rights * kept safe and secure * not transferred outside the UK without adequate protection There is stronger legal protection for more sensitive information, such as: * ethnic background * political opinions * religious beliefs * health * sexual health * criminal records State the principles- 1. Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully and, in particular, shall not be processed unless – (a) at least one of the conditions in Schedule 2 is met, and (b) in the case of sensitive personal data, at least one of the conditions in Schedule 3 is also met. 2. Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes. 3. Personal data shall be adequate,......

Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

Data Protection

...Abuse is Suspected Appropriate Responses When Child Maltreatment or Abuse is Suspected BY Victoria Rothwell This is a guide to be aimed and to be used by professionals in which are the appropriate responses for a professional to follow if a child is being maltreated or if abused is suspected to be taking place. It includes the procedures to follow maltreatment is considered, suspected, confirmed or excluded and the roles and responsibilities of the professionals, as well as responding to direct or indirect disclosure. Content Procedures where maltreatment is considered, suspected, confirmed or excluded: * Whistle blowing * Reporting arrangements * Security of records * Sequence of events leading to registration on child protection register or care proceedings Roles and responsibilities: * Following policies and procedures * Observing children and their families and their interaction * How to respond if maltreatment is suspected * What action to take following disclosure * Maintaining confidentiality Responding to direct or indirect disclosure: * Listening skills * Communicating with the child at their own pace and taking them seriously with unconditional acceptance * Reassuring and supporting * Dealing with your own feelings Procedures where maltreatment is considered, suspected, confirmed or excluded Procedures where maltreatment is considered, suspected, confirmed or excluded Whistle Blowing This happens within an organisation,......

Words: 1990 - Pages: 8

Data Protection

...FXT2 Task 2 Follow-Up re: Human Resources Data Modification 1. Identify areas that were not addressed by the IT staff’s response to the incident. Based on the narrative, the only corrective measure the company implemented was PKI. As noted in the original evaluation, several areas need to be addressed: * Climate/culture of the organization * Employee training for social engineering attacks * Positive identification of employees when granting role-based access * Vulnerabilities within and without the network, specifically to sniffers and eavesdropping * The ease with which the employee changed his pay rate, indicating a single system used for HR profiles rather than segregated duties & systems * The PKI that was installed only addressed the HR system, rather than the entire organization Honestly, the whole environment at this company needs a complete evaluation and overhaul! 2. Outline the other attacks mentioned in the scenario that were not noticed by the organization. * Social Engineering * Sniffing/Eavesdropping * Unauthorized Privilege Escalation * Network Penetration * Spoofing a. Describe the nature of the attacks not noticed by the organization. By “the nature of the attacks” I interpret this to mean the source of the attacks, or the skillset required to carry out the attacks. I believe this employee was tenured based on their ability to: * Hack into the HR system * Successfully intercept the email from...

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Data Protection Principles

...Data Protection Act 1998 – The Principles explained Introduction There are eight guiding principles to the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) which the council must adhere to when processing personal data. The DPA defines processing as obtaining, organising, adapting, accessing, using and deleting. 1. First Principle “Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully” In order to comply with the first principle; one of the following conditions from Schedule 2 must be met if personal data is being processed: 1. The ‘data subject’ has given their consent 2. The processing is necessary a. For the performance of a contract to which the data subject is party, or b. For the taking of steps at the request of the data subject with a view to entering a contract 3. The processing is necessary to comply with legal obligation 4. The processing is necessary in order to protect the vital interests of the data subject 5. The processing is necessary for the Administration of justice 6. The processing is necessary for the legitimate interests of the data controller (except where unwarranted because of prejudice or legitimate interests of data subject) 2. Second Principle ‘Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with those purposes’ To comply with the second principle, the council must inform the Information Commissioner of all the purposes for which it processes......

Words: 887 - Pages: 4

Consumer Protection Act

...Consumer Protection Act 1987 The Consumer Protection Act 1987 This protects the public by: * -prohibiting the manufacture and supply of unsafe goods * -making the manufacturer or seller of a defective product responsible for damage it causes * -allowing local councils to seize unsafe goods and suspend the sale of suspected unsafe goods -prohibiting misleading price indications The first section defines what a product is which is defined as “any goods and electricity”. A good is further defined as substances, growing crops and things comprised inland by virtue of being attached to it and any ship, aircraft or vehicle. The second section defines who can be sued over negligence or a defective. It can be either someone who has put their name on a product through a trademark or brand. Another person that can potentially be sued is a person who brings in a good which does not meet regulations of the EU. Section three of the act defines what a defect is. A defect is when the product does not provide the safety which a person is entitled to expect. This is very contestable because expectation is subjective. In Bogle Vs Mcdonalds restaurants, Bogle said his coffee was defective because his coffee was too hot but he was unsuccessful because coffee is expected to be hot and he could not prove the temperature. Richardson Vs LRC products LTD. This is demonstrated in Richardson v LRC Products Ltd [2000] 59 BMLR 185 where a condom was held not to be defective......

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

Children Internet Protection Act

...Internet Protection Act Children Internet Protection Act The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) is a federal law enacted by Congress to address concerns about access to offensive content over the Internet on school and library computers. Schools and libraries subject to CIPA may not receive the discounts offered by the E-rate program unless they certify that they have an Internet safety policy that includes technology protection measures. The protection measures must block or filter Internet access to pictures that are: ✓ obscene; ✓ child pornography; or ✓ harmful to minors (for computers that are accessed by minors). Before adopting this Internet safety policy, schools and libraries must provide reasonable notice and hold at least one public hearing or meeting to address the proposal. Whether a school or library filters any content besides the visual depictions defined in the law is a local decision. However, libraries that filter other content open themselves to potential legal challenges based on the blocking of constitutionally protected content. The law, while defining the type of images that need to be blocked, does not specify any particular software (client) programs, such as a Web browser, email, or chat software which must come under the scrutiny of the TPM. The term 'technology protection measure' means a specific technology that blocks or filters Internet access to visual depictions defined in the act.......

Words: 469 - Pages: 2

Consumer Protection Act 1999

...9 CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 1999 | Application: offer or supply of goods to one or more consumers Application: offer or supply of goods to one or more consumers Meaning of consumer: a person who acquires or uses goods or services ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household purpose; S3 Meaning of consumer: a person who acquires or uses goods or services ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household purpose; S3 S.6(1): cannot exclude the operation of CPA 1999 S.6(1): cannot exclude the operation of CPA 1999 3. Implied Guarantee as To Fitness for Particular Purpose Sec. 33(1) – Implied: goods are reasonably fit for any particular purpose known by consumer, expressly or by implication to the supplier as the purpose it is purchased However, if supplier represents goods fit for a particular purpose, it should also be reasonably fit for that purpose. Does not apply: Consumer doesn’t rely on the supplier’s skill/judgment or if unreasonable to do so Goods used for other than normal purpose (known to supplier), must be reasonably fit for that purpose 3. Implied Guarantee as To Fitness for Particular Purpose Sec. 33(1) – Implied: goods are reasonably fit for any particular purpose known by consumer, expressly or by implication to the supplier as the purpose it is purchased However, if supplier represents goods fit for a particular purpose, it should also be reasonably fit for that purpose. Does not apply: Consumer doesn’t rely on the......

Words: 2004 - Pages: 9