Cpu + Alu

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By sully777
Words 653
Pages 3
CPU’s and ALU’s Table of content Page 1
Introduction Page 2
CPU Page 3
CPU Pictures Page 4
ALU Page 5
ALU Picture Page 6

Many people consider the CPU (Central Processing Unit) to be the brains of the computer. This is not true because, for the most part, the CPU cannot keep data stored inside it like a human brain. It is used to process much of the information needed by the computer, just like our brain thinks and processes information and gives orders to our other body parts.

Stands for (Arithmetic Logic Unit). An ALU is an integrated circuit within a CPU that performs arithmetic and logic operations. Arithmetic instructions include addition, subtraction, and shifting operations, while logic instructions include AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations. CPU (Central Processing Unit)
CPU (Central Processing Unit) - otherwise known as a processor - is an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased their presence far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to mobile phones.
The clock rate is one of the main characteristics of the CPU when performance is concerned. Clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz, kilohertz, megahertz or gigahertz) for the frequency of the clock in any synchronous circuit. A single clock cycle (typically shorter than a nanosecond in modern non-embedded microprocessors) toggles between a logical zero and a logical one state.
With any particular CPU, replacing the crystal with another crystal that oscillates with twice the frequency will generally make the CPU run with twice the performance. It will also make the CPU produce roughly twice the amount of…...

Similar Documents

Cpu Analysis

...The CPU is a very important part of any computer. This part of the computer fetches the data, performs operations to the data and stores the data (the fetch execute cycle). The Workshop PC has an “AMD Athlon 64x2 4400+” processor these processors were first implemented into machines in 2005 meaning it has a possibility of being up to 6 years old. This processor has 2 cores meaning that the processor can receive 2 data strings at once rather than individually receiving them. Having a dual core processor is better than just a single core due to the fact that it can handle more data at once. But there are also newer quad core processors which would be much better than this processor. This processor has a core speed of 2294.4 MHZ this seems to be a reasonable speed for a processor to run at. It also has a multiplier of 11.5 having a multiplier of 11.5 means that there will be 11.5 cycles for every external clock cycle. The processor has a bus speed of 199.5MHz, the bus speed refers to how much data can travel across the bus at any one specific time. The speed of the bus can drastically affect the computers performance as the bus is essential for the transfer of data. The processor requires 1.350v of power to run it, this is relatively high compared to a lot of modern CPU’s that are available. The AMD Athlon has cache L1 data and L1 Inst of 2 x 64Kbytes and has L2 of 2 x 512Kbytes. The amount of cache memory is important as the cache memory stores data from the most used memory......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Tipos de Cpu

...Nombre: Iliana velazquez Moreno Grupo: 1°A CPU Central Procesing Unit. Es la parte inteligente del sistema. Interpreta las instrucciones del programa de usuario y consulta el estado de las entradas. Dependiendo de dichos estados y del programa, ordena la activación de las salidas deseadas. Tipos de CPU Socket: Van directamente a la placa base y van provistas de un ventilador directamente conectado a él. SLOT Tienen una caja que almacena el CPU y el ventilador va conectado a esta caja. Se trata de cada una de los alojamientos que tiene la placa madre en donde se insertan las tarjetas de expansión. Todas las ranuras están conectadas entre si . Tipos de Monitores: *MDA . Monocrom Dispaly Adapter .Monitores monocromáticos (solo ofrecían Textos) . Características: .Resolución 720_350 Pixeles .Soporte de Texto monocromático .No soporta gráficos ni colores. .La tarjeta gráfica cuenta con una memoria de video de 4kb .Soporta subrayado, negritas, cursiva, normal, invisibilidad para textos. Monitor CGA Color Graphics Adapter Fueron comercializados a partir de 1981 Cuando se desarrolla la primera tarjeta gráfica. Caracteristicas: .Resolución 160_200, 320x200, 640x200 pixeles .Soporte de gráfico a color .Diseñado principalmente para juego de computadoras . La tarjeta gráfica contenía 16kb de memoria de video *EGA .Enhanced Graphics Adapter Creado en 1984, incorporando una mayor amplitud de Colores y resolución. Características .Resolución......

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

Cpu Block

...NT1110 Mon Night CPU Block Diagram cache cache Controller Controller ALU ALU ALU ALU Front side Bus Backside busbaba Backside Bus Controller * Controller manages the basic functions of the CPU, as well controlled communication between the motherboard and other functions of the CPU * Communication between the Controller and the ALU is the Internal bus 32 bit wide data bus * Communication between the cache and the ALU and the Controller is the backside bus * Cache uses SRAM static ram, it’s faster but more expensive and it holds memory without being refresh. * There are three types of Cache L1, L2, and L3. * L1 cache is on the processor chip. * L2 cache is inside the processor housing but not on the processor chip. * L3 cache is inside the processor housing but further away from the processor chip * ALU Logical Unit: After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored * CONTROLLED UNIT Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. Control Unit is......

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Cpu Storage

...The most common types of CPU’s on the market today are manufactured by Intel Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). Intel is the largest global supplier of microprocessors for the x86 architecture (PCs), and AMD is the second largest. AMD concentrates primarily on CPU’s, chipsets, and other microprocessors, but Intel delves into many other markets including networking technologies, motherboards, and much more. It is important to know some of the processors that each manufacturer develops so that you can different differentiate between the various types of PCs you can see in the field. The Pentium microprocessor is the CPU (central processing unit) for what are now possibly the widest-selling personal computers. Unlike previous CPUs that Intel made, the 486DX and Pentium chips included a floating-point unit (FPU) also know as a math coprocessor. Previous Intel CPUs did all their arithmetic using integers; programs that used floating-point numbers (non-integers like 2.5 or 3.14) needed to tell the chip how (for example) to divide them using integer arithmetic. The 486DX and Pentium chips have these instructions built into the chip, in their FPUs. This makes them much faster for intense numerical calculations, more complex, and more expensive. The problem for Intel is that all Pentiums manufactured until sometime this fall had errors in the on-chip FPU instructions for division. This caused the Pentium's FPU to incorrectly divide certain floating-point numbers. A mathematics professor by...

Words: 352 - Pages: 2

Cpu Scheduling

...CPU SCHEDULINGCPU scheduling in UNIX is designed to benefit interactive processes. Processes are given small CPU time slices by a priority algorithm that reduces to round-robin scheduling for CPU-bound jobs.The scheduler on UNIX system belongs to the general class of operating system schedulers known as round robin with multilevel feedback which means that the kernel allocates the CPU time to a process for small time slice, preempts a process that exceeds its time slice and feed it back into one of several priority queues. A process may need much iteration through the "feedback loop" before it finishes. When kernel does a context switch and restores the context of a process. The process resumes execution from the point where it had been suspended.Each process table entry contains a priority field. There is a process table for each process which contains a priority field for process scheduling. The priority of a process is lower if they have recently used the CPU and vice versa.The more CPU time a process accumulates, the lower (more positive) its priority becomes, and vice versa, so there is negative feedback in CPU scheduling and it is difficult for a single process to take all the CPU time. Process aging is employed to prevent starvation.Older UNIX systems used a 1-second quantum for the round- robin scheduling. 4.33SD reschedules processes every 0.1 second and recomputed priorities every second. The round-robin scheduling is accomplished by the -time-out mechanism, which......

Words: 2136 - Pages: 9

The Impact of Operating Systems on Modern Cpu Designs (and Vice Versa)

...on Modern CPU Designs (and Vice Versa) Chris Schlaeger Director Operating System Research Center February, 2008 Software Visible Features changed the Game After the Megahertz Race What has changed? ▪ 64 bit computing ▪ AMD-V™ technology ▪ Power consumption ▪ Multi-core ▪ Frequency and cache size changes are invisible to the OS ▪ Architectural features require changes to the OS! 2 February, 2008 Impact of OSs on Modern CPU Designs Degrees of Freedom for CPU designs Address and instruction width Memory bus connection Instruction set Pipeline stages Number of execution units Number of cores Number of CPUs CPU Interconnects Caches ... 3 February, 2008 Impact of OSs on Modern CPU Designs AMD's HW/SW Co-Design Approach Next-Gen CPU/GPU HW-Architecture Architecture Improvements CPU Behavioural Description Binary Code Cycle Accurate Simulator Code Improvements Operating System Prototype Full In-House Design Cycle 4 OS Reference Implementation February, 2008 Impact of OSs on Modern CPU Designs Uniform vs. Non-Uniform Memory I/O I/O Hub Hub Memory Controller PCI-E Hub Bridge PCI-E Bridge PCI-E PCI-E Bridge Bridge PCI-E Bridge PCI-E Bridge I/O Hub USB PCI Traditional x86 architecture • Frontside bus limits memory bandwidth to a fixed maximum 5 Direct Connect Architecture • Memory bandwidth scales with number of processors February, 2008 Impact of OSs on Modern CPU Designs ...

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Cpu Analysis

...• CPU Organization • Speed • Advances in Processing Speed • Cache • ZIF • Heat • Real Life Problems • A+ Expectations This video clip explains everything you need to know about the CPU and troubleshooting heat problems. Also included is a review of what knowledge is expected to pass the A+ Exam. VIDEO 1.05 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS CPU ORGANIZATION • Two major CPUS 1. Intel 2. AMD • System Bus • Frontside Bus • Controller • ALU • Internal Bus • Cache • Backside Bus SPEED • Processor 1. Usually measured in GHz • System Bus 1. Usually measured in MHz • Multiplier 1. Ratio between processor and system bus 2. System bus speed x multiplier = processor speed Advances in Processing Speed • Multiprocessing 1. The ability to perform multiple functions simultaneously. • Multiple Processors • Dual Core Processors CACHE • SRAM 1. Static RAM 2. Faster, but more expensive 3. Holds memory without being “refreshed” • DRAM 1. Dynamic RAM 2. Memory must be “refreshed” • L1 Cache 1. On the processor chip • L2 Cache 2. Inside the processor housing 3. Not on the processor chip • L3 Cache 1. Inside the processor housing 2. Further away from the processor chip SOCKETS • LGA 775 1. Intel Pentium 4 and Celron • Socket 754 1. AMD- Athlon, Sempron, Opteron ZIF • Zero Insertion Force 1. Lever used to gently lock CPU into socket without damaging it. HEAT • Optimal Temperature 1. 90-110 F 2. 32-43 C • Check system temperature in CMOS • Thermal......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Cpu Transistor Count in a Nutshell

...Since the 1960’s CPU transistor sizes have been steadily shrinking over time. Since the 1960’s the number of transistors on a Central Processing Unit have steadily increased from 2,300 on Intel’s first microprocessor the 4004, to more than 5 billion on Intel’s 62-Core Xeon Phi, released in 2012. Moore’s Law According to Moore’s Law, the number of transistors on an integrated circuit doubles every 18-24 months. Although Moore’s Law isn’t a law of the physical sciences, it is an observation by Gordon Moore made in the 1960’s. Transistor count is the most used method of measure for the complexity of integrated circuits. Intel’s Quad-Core Itanium Tukwila released in 2010 had 2 billion transistors on it’s die. As impressive as this is, Moore’s Law cannot continue indefinitely without modification. The reason for this is the laws of physics, that as the size of transistors shrinks and the number of transistors on a CPU die increases, transistors will eventually reach the limits of atomic sizes. At this size, silicon becomes unsuitable as a material to build integrated circuits out of, due to quantum tunneling and other factors. CPU die sizes will either have to get larger to fit more transistors (abet smaller transistors) and or increase the number of layers for each die. Moore’s Law is a model of exponential growth, and as such exponential growth is the fastest model of growth. Whether 100 billion or even 1 trillion transistors may fit on a single chip in the future,......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Cpu and Memory Installation

...Cpu And Memory Installation When installing the memory into the proper DIMM(dual inline memory module) slots you must make sure you have the right replacement specifications for your motherboard.You want to also remember the reason for installing memory is for more RAM(random access memory).Each motherboard requires a certain amount of memory and it wouldn’t be beneficial to add more than what is needed.However,the more memory you have installed, the faster the system.DIMMs can have chips on one side or on both sides and most address memory 64 bits a time. When you go to buy a DIMM, an ID that identifies the date the chip was manufactured will be stamped on it.Look for dates that are relatively close together and less than a year old. Try buying memory from a reliable source. “When setting up dual channeling, know that the pair of DIMMs in a channel must be equally matched in size, speed, and features, and it is recommended they come from the same manufacturer” (Andrews). If you happen to install memories with different speeds, the motherboard will run at the lesser of the two. “For a triple-channel installation, three DIMM slots must be populated with three matching DDR3 DIMMs” (Andrews).Most motherboards now are setup to allow dual channeling. Make sure to look at the motherboard documentation before installing. Most of the time the memory slots will be color coded for dual channeling. Dual channeling readies the DIMMs to receive 128 bits of information......

Words: 957 - Pages: 4

Cpu Scheduling

...Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling        Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling Operating Systems Examples Algorithm Evaluation Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Objectives    To introduce CPU scheduling, which is the basis for multiprogrammed operating systems To describe various CPU-scheduling algorithms To discuss evaluation criteria for selecting a CPU-scheduling algorithm for a particular system Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Basic Concepts    Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming CPU–I/O Burst Cycle – Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait CPU burst distribution Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Alternating Sequence of CPU and I/O Bursts Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Histogram of CPU-burst Times Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 5.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 CPU Scheduler   Selects from among the processes in ready queue, and allocates the CPU to one of them  Queue may be ordered in various ways Switches from running to waiting state Switches from......

Words: 3375 - Pages: 14

Cpu- Central Processing Unit

...video was about the components and functions that take place in the CPU. The video creates a visual of more or less where the components are, how they connect and what’s happening inside the CPU. The Information in this video was very specific and explained all the different elements of a CPU very well. I learned that there are a lot of things happening all simultaneously in the CPU. I also learned about the different components, their functions and placements of them inside. What I thought to be a little confusing was the details about Cache. All the different locations of the cache and different kinds of cache are too similar but I’m sure over time with more experience and hands on activities I will get more familiar with it. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | CPUCentral Processing Unit | | | | NT1110- | | This video was about the components and functions that take place in the CPU. The video creates a visual of more or less where the components are, how they connect and what’s happening inside the CPU. The Information in this video was very specific and explained all the different elements of a CPU very well. I learned that there are a lot of things happening all simultaneously in the CPU. I also learned about the different components, their functions and...

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Cpu Discription

...This part of the reading will examine the CPU, Buses, Controllers, and Main Memory. Other sections will examine input devices, output devices, and secondary memory. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Figure 2: The Central Processing Unit The computer does its primary work in a part of the machine we cannot see, a control center that converts data input to information output. This control center, called the central processing unit (CPU), is a highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions. All computers, large and small, must have a central processing unit. As Figure 2 shows, the central processing unit consists of two parts: The control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit. Each part has a specific function. Before we discuss the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit in detail, we need to consider data storage and its relationship to the central processing unit. Computers use two types of storage: Primary storage and secondary storage. The CPU interacts closely with primary storage, or main memory, referring to it for both instructions and data. For this reason this part of the reading will discuss memory in the context of the central processing unit. Technically, however, memory is not part of the CPU. Recall that a computer's memory holds data only temporarily, at the time the computer is executing a program. Secondary storage holds permanent or semi-permanent data on some external magnetic or optical medium...

Words: 2592 - Pages: 11

Cpu Scheduling Algorithms Simulation

...FINAL YEAR PROJECT On DESIGNING A SIMULATOR TO IMPLEMENT A JOB SCHEDULER BASED ON DIFFERENT POPULAR CPU SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS Submitted as partial fulfillment for the award of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY Session 2014-15 In Computer Science & Engineering Under the guidance of Mr.MrinmoySen By AnanyaDas(11/CS/15, ananyadas092@gmail.com, +919681851782) AnshumanMahanty(11/CS/23, anshumanmahanty1@gmail.com, +917501169824) SayaniBanerjee(11/CS/93, sayanibanerjee.1@gmail.com, +919046422003) HALDIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, HALDIA CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the final year project (CS792) on ‘Designing a Simulator implementing job scheduler based on different popular CPU scheduling algorithms’ has been completed and submitted successfully by the project members Ananya Das (11/CS/15), Anshuman Mahanty (11/CS/23) and Sayani Banerjee (11/CS/93). ------------------------- -------------------------------- --------------------------- Mr. Tarun Kumar Ghosh Mr. Sourav Mandal, Mr. Mrinmoy Sen Head of the Department, Convenor, Asst. Prof., Project Mentor, Asst. Prof., Computer Science & Engg. Project Evaluation Committee Department of CSE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We use this opportunity to express our gratitude to everyone who has supported us through the ongoing course of this final year project. The project owes its success not......

Words: 6989 - Pages: 28

Cpu Soft

...An Introduction to Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Vary in Structure § Monosaccharide monomers are simple sugars that structurally vary in four primary ways: • Location of the carbonyl group • – – Aldose: found at the end of the monosaccharide Ketose: found in the middle of the monosaccharide Number of carbon atoms present – Triose: three Pentose: five Hexose: six Spatial arrangement of their atoms • – Different arrangement of the hydroxyl groups Linear and alternative ring forms • – Sugars tend to form ring structures in aqueous solutions Thus each Each monosaccharide has a unique structure and function The Structure of Polysaccharides § Polysaccharides, or complex carbohydrates, are polymers of monosaccharide monomers § The simplest polysaccharides are disaccharides § – – Comprised of two monosaccharide monomers The monomers can be identical or different Simple sugars polymerize when – A condensation reaction occurs – – Between two hydroxyl groups Resulting in a covalent bond called a glycosidic linkage Glycosidic Linkages § The glycosidic linkages can form – – § Between any two hydroxyl group The location and geometry of these bonds vary widely among polysaccharides α-1,4-glycosidic linkage and β-1,4- glycosidic linkage – Both linkages are between the C-1 and C-4 carbons Their geometry is different § – – α and β refer to the contrasting orientations......

Words: 960 - Pages: 4

Thesis on Cpu

...According to the article”What is a Computer Virus” computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computer to another and to interfere with computer operation. Computer virus can attack computers in many ways and are often damaging to the computer. These viruses often spread without a persons knowledge about the virus and can be specially damaging to computers and expensive to those who own the computers to repair. Viruses can also affect program and the performance of the computer and cause severe harm. The main component in describing a virus is the viruses’ ability to replicate itself through computers or the internet. The first computer virus was created by Dr. Cohen, 26 yrs ago at the University of Southern California. Dr. Cohen realized that if a Trojan horse copied itself into other programs, then all those programs would be infected, and then everybody that ran any of those programs would get infected and so forth (Lee). From here, Dr. Cohen has since developed many ways to remove viruses and is one of the leading experts in that field. One of the most difficult things with viruses are they come in all different forms and are often disguised to the user. One type of virus is a direct action virus. According to the article “Different Types of Computer Viruses” on buzzle.com, the purpose of a direct action virus is to replicate and take action when it is executed. When a specific condition is met, the virus will go into action......

Words: 570 - Pages: 3