Cloning for Medical Research

In: Social Issues

Submitted By larry1
Words 2313
Pages 10
Using Human Cloning for Medical Research
The subject of human cloning has many different points of view. The utilization of human cloning for the sake of medical research is a path that we, as guardians of the future, should stand up against in an effort to preserve the human race as we know it today. The topic of cloning has many different terminologies as well as types.
What is cloning? Cloning is not limited just to humans but is actually all around us. It exists in nature, animals and humans. Cloning is defined as the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing human or growing cloned tissue from that individual. This term is generally used to refer to artificial cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction. “Human cloning is the asexual production of a human being whose genetic makeup is nearly identical to that of a currently or previously existing individual” (Chesire et al., 2003, p. 1010). To be successful with cloning, scientists utilize and create “generic” cells that that have the ability to make exact duplicates or copies of themselves indefinitely. This process is known as “stem cell research.” Stem cells are a key element of the different types of cloning and will impact advances in helping to cure many different types of diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, spinal cord injury, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and cancer. Before we can discuss this, I need to explain the different types of cloning.
Cloning for the most part, as we know it, began on July 5, 1996 with a sheep named “Dolly.” The creation of Dolly was accomplished after many failed and aborted attempts. Dolly came about by agricultural research scientists who were tasked and funded to create the “perfect sheep.” The reason behind the experiment was to…...

Similar Documents


...Karren 1 Camille Karren Mrs. Robertson English 5A 12 December 2012 Human Therapeutic Cloning Should Be Permitted Human therapeutic cloning has the ability to greatly improve the quality of life. Cloning could be the answer to the end of your pain and suffering, but before you can understand it’s benefits, you have to know the process therapeutic cloning itself. Therapeutic cloning is a procedure in which cells, typically skin cells, are taken from a patient and inserted into a fertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed. Scientists then extract stem cells from the egg, and use those cells to grow tissue that are a perfect genetic match to the patient. It is a break-through in science and the key to curing many diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Elizabeth Foley explains why human cloning should not be banned due to, “the primary objections to human cloning appear to be unfounded, based more on morality, theology, and fear than objective data.” The potential medical benefits of genetic engineering are far too great to let moral concerns about embryonic cell use get in the way of curing diseases. Human therapeutic cloning should not be banned from society because countless lives can be saved through transplantations and genetic research. Therapeutic cloning is the cloning of human tissues for research and transplant, and shows much promise in organ transplantation. Much needed organs grown from stem cells from the patient’s own genetic...

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Medical Research Female Systems

...Brandon Davis Anthem College Medical Assisting DEcember, 2013 Menopause Menopause (626.0) is by definition the cessation of menstruation and fertility, after, (1) year of amenorrhea (626.0) (Buck, 2012) from the menstrual cycle. The average according too, some statics women in the United States begin around 8 - 12 years of transition (Goldman, 2000) (Buck, 2012).Menopause is a natural female biological process (628.0). Some studies have shown that due to changes combined in the atrophic endothelial site in the vaginal region have shown changes characterized by thinning of the endometrial endothelium, decrease ability to produce lubrication with sexual arousal. This reduced sexual drive (799.81). The condition that happens as a result of menopause (626.0) is, associated with dyspareunia (306.5) (Buck, 2012). For some the decreased circulation of blood flow to the vagina can also, be responsible for loss of secretions. Some of the various symptoms of menopause (626.0) can range from, physical to emotional. Such as, a roller coaster of emotions feeling sadness and loss regarding no longer is being able to reproduce. ( In the beginning (626.1), irregular menstrual cycles, vaginal dryness, night sweats, and weight gain with slowed metabolism (627.2) (Buck, 2012). Studies have shown that, certain anti-depressants in the class of......

Words: 957 - Pages: 4


...Jeremy A. Belvin-Reed 6-27-2012 Human Cloning: Unproven, Unsafe Human Cloning is the most controversial subject in biotechnology today. It can be defined as the act of creating a new individual (reproductive) or organism (therapeutic) from the single cell of a parent subject. In reproductive cloning (human cloning) a parent subject is expected to act as a surrogate mother. Making the clone involves using the parent’s empty egg (nucleus and genetic code removed) combined with the nucleus of their own skin cells to create 1 embryo which is now a copy of them. Each time a procedure is formed a life hangs in the balance. This life is treated as property to be experimented on, without consent. People are being sold fantasies with ideas such as clones replacing us and another you. Whether you know it or not, resources for these procedures are costly to you. And so far, non-one is being held responsible. reports that “even if a mere 100 eggs were taken from ten donors, the cost of simply paying the donors could easily reach $50.000.” In hindsight, you are actually paying, out of your tax dollars, $1000 an egg. 12-14 of these eggs are transplanted into one surrogate. If you have 3 patients, the cost of the procedure skyrockets to $42,000 more of your tax dollars.“That means costs to treat one patient (human) could......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Cloning for Medical Purposes

...Cloning for Medical Purposes Nilsa Llanos Eastwick College Abstract The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. (Journal of Medical Ethics 1999; 25:87-95) Keywords: Cloning; transplantation; autonomy; embryonic stem cells; fetal tissue; embryo experimentation; abortion; potential Cloning for Medical Purposes  Cloning for survival? It all started back in the fifties when James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA (D’Souza NA). Ever since, there has been talk of human and animal cloning. It all seemed out of reach and basically impossible, but in 1997 that all changed when a sheep, named Dolly, was the first ever mammal to be cloned. She was cloned for the purpose of curing disease and research on animal organs for human transplantation (Gilbert S, Tyler A, Zackin E). Now that scientists know that it is possible to clone literally anything with DNA, the world has become a rather scary......

Words: 2077 - Pages: 9


...2010 Cloning Human, animal, and plant cloning is one of the most controversial subjects in modern science. There are many good arguments in favor of cloning, as well as many against it. In my opinion, plant and animal cloning could be very efficient to society by way of creating more food, but I also view it as unethical. In this essay I will discuss many pro’s and con’s of cloning. Cloning can help the human race in many ways, but is it necessary? One way it can help us is by the cloning of plants and animals. In doing this, we could create more food and genetically engineer the food to maximize its health. "Commercial livestock cloning could inundate the food supply with novel products that have not been safety tested."(Mendelson). Most scientists who oppose the idea claim that cloned animals usually have birth defects, and have not been properly tested for safe consumption. Although this could be true, with the rapidly advancing technology in today’s world it probably will not be long until cloning is perfected, and the animals pass all tests. However, is the cloning of animals really necessary for us to survive? Those who are on the more ethical side of the matter believe that God has and will continue to provide us with plenty of plants and animals to survive on. Thus, the argument can go back and forth depending on your beliefs and personal ethics. Ultimately the answer to the question is what you make it. Another way cloning can benefit us is by the cloning of......

Words: 1082 - Pages: 5


...Outline for Junior Research Paper on Controversial Issue Title: I. Introduction A. Attention Getter (Question, Startling/Interesting Statistic, Startling Statement, Anecdote, Quotation, etc.) B. Description and definition of the issue (What is global warming?) C. Importance of the issue (How does it impact our society?) D. Applicable law (If you have research on recent laws regarding your issue place it here. If not, delete it.) E. Thesis: Your perspective (argument) on the issue based on three main points. 1. Example Thesis: Human cloning should not be legalized because it is dangerous, expensive, and unethical. II. Brief Overview of Opposing Position A. Describe the basic view point of the opposition 1. Initially, many would argue that cloning should be legalized because it may cure diseases. B. Provide the supporting arguments and facts (supported by references to texts and well-known authorities) 1. For example, some scientists say that cloning may provide clues to genetic mapping and diseases (Bogo 1). 2. Additionally, research seems to show that cloning allows individuals to have a “back-up” of their specific blood, plasma, and even organs (Samson 2). C. Elaborate/Analysis and summary of perspective A: 1. To summarize,......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Governmental Banning of Human Cloning Essay, Research

...Human Cloning Essay, Research Paper A Solution to the Problem: Governmental Banning of Human Cloning Governmental Banning on human and organ cloning is posing a problem on those educated ones in academia. Researcher and scientist Dr. Ian Wilmut has successfully cloned a sheep, and has gathered from this experiment evidence that strongly proves that human and organ cloning could be performed ? safely and effectively. Unfortunately, our government has almost immediately banned such cloning in this country. Did they realize the benefits of such a discovery? Perhaps they simply believe that it is some sort of unethical, immoral experiment that is not beneficial to our society. Perhaps they should take a closer look at exactly what these researchers have derived from years of experimenting. In this paper, I will propose a possible plan to persuade our government to take another look at human and organ cloning. Many positive benefits could come out of this, and it is our responsibility, for the sake of a healthier future, to push policy makers to change their minds and loosen their grips on such a banning. Cloning of various organisms has been going on for years. This concept of cloning was conceived in 1938, but it was not until 1994 that a method using an embryo was used to clone a cow (Business Week). Much to many people?s surprise, the idea of cloning humans is not an aged concept. It is fairly new, but that hardly means that the amount, or rather quality, of research......

Words: 1329 - Pages: 6

Funding in Medical Research

...Canyon University: HLT- 364 10/11/13 As one studies medical research, they discovers that there are many problems surrounding it. However, one of them can make a tremendous impact, which are, budget cuts. When researching this problem, several questions came arise. How is budget cuts affecting health care administration? Why are there budget cuts? How are budget cuts effecting society? Lastly how was the budget used in the past and if the budget cuts were affected by the actions of those that run research facilities? There are several reasons to why budget is being cut and it is not just one problem that helps explain this. As one goes further into HealthCare research they come to the fact that there are problems that affect this one particular area overall. The first question that arises when inquiring about budget cuts in the health care administration is: Where is the funding they receive going? When there are so many budget cuts and there isn’t enough funding how is this affecting them? As one comes to inquire about budget cuts one has to understand that this affects the health care administration in many ways. As budget cuts arise, problems arise as well. When there is not sufficient money to go around then there are problems as to how much funding does each department receive. As the funding is divided there are shortages that arise. For example, there are shortages in the equipment supply that is needed. A research study indicated that after inquiring of how......

Words: 2486 - Pages: 10

Research Medical Paper Acl's

...FEBRUARY 27, 2008 Effect of Allograft Bone Processing on Structural Cortical Grafts: A Comparison of Three Proprietary Processing Methods Michael G. Dunn, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Director, Orthopaedic Research Laboratories UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School 1 Robert Wood Johnson Place, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 Summary The objective of this study was to determine the effect of three commercial bone cleaning processes on the bone remodeling characteristics of cortical bone. Cortical bone is useful for its load bearing properties. Cortical struts are typically used in applications where internal stabilization is desired. The cortical allografts serve as a stabilizing strut while undergoing bone remodeling by the mechanism of creeping substitution. The processing of cortical bone, intended to remove undesirable immunologically active elements, may also remove desirable elements (including endogenous growth factors) and affect the bone’s ability to undergo creeping substitution. Summary, continued Results of this study suggest that: • DBM prepared from MTF ATP cortical tissue was consistently osteoinductive in this model; 7 out of 7 ranked samples were osteoinductive (1 sample could not be ranked due to histological artifacts). The average bone score for the 7 ranked samples was 2.17 ± 0.82. • DBM prepared from RTI BioCleanse cortical tissue was not osteoinductive in this model; 7 out of 7 ranked samples were not......

Words: 1748 - Pages: 7

Medical Ethics and Research

...Kacy Noble Medical Research and Ethics HCS/ 435 March 7, 2011 Patricia Tobin Ph.D., LCSW Medical Research and Ethics In the medical field ethics plays a large role in dictating what is deemed acceptable. The role of ethics has changed drastically over the past hundred years. There are many well-known unethical medical studies that have taken place in the past. Current research is being questioned by ethics professionals as well. The difference between now and then is our resources. Now, thee are ethics committees who help make these fragile decisions. Research much now be approved and follow rigorous standards. Ethics has changed drastically and will continue to evolve, hopefully for the better, in the future. Many of the well-known ethics cases involving research are highly publicized. The ethical research case I chose is not as well known. Possible reasons of the lack of publicity might be because the participants were not physically hurt nor were their health statuses altered. William Laud Humphreys managed to produce research that is ethically wrong in which none of the participants were named or harmed. Could this be why his research is still discussed in many universities today? William Laud Humphreys was born October 16, 1930. Laud had two brothers whom he was never close to and did not have a favorable opinion of his father (TWU, 2010). Humphreys graduated from Seabury-Western theological seminary in 1955. He was then baptized and changed his name from......

Words: 1492 - Pages: 6


...The first thing that usually pops into someone’s mind when they hear the word cloning is a human replication such as the army of clones in the movie Star Wars. What most people don't know is that there is so much more to cloning than creating a living being identical to the original. There are multiple ways to utilize the technology of cloning whether they be beneficial or not. Cloning is a good idea as long as it upholds life and is not allowed to limit the diversity of genetic traits. Cloning is “the asexual production of an exact copy of an original” (“What is cloning”). It is from one parent and results in identical cells. Scientifically speaking, one cell could be cloned, as well as organs, plants, even animals and perhaps humans. Just as varied, are the reasons to clone in the first place. The possibilities of cloning range from medical uses, personal uses, agricultural and livestock improvement to saving endangered species and more. The medical advantages cloning provides extend life, treat illnesses, and produce medications. Research into cell growth and genetics adds understanding into diseases such as cancer and how to avoid hereditary defects. In addition, cloning can improve food sources whether crops or livestock. Cloning also takes part in choosing desirable traits for people, animals, and plant, crops. Once they genetically engineer the plants, they can clone those seeds so that they have multiple identical copies of that same plant. Same with animals or......

Words: 1822 - Pages: 8

Stem Cell Research and Genetic Cloning

...The supporters of therapeutic cloning and stem cell research call for the end of genetically linked diseases such as diabetes and cystic fibrosis. Human DNA has been atomized into clonable portions. The possibility of designer babies is cherished by affluent parents. All these are the realities of our time, the results of stem cell research whose impact may be unpredictable. On the one hand, human cloning may open new horizons for stem cell research; on the other hand, all this fuss about genetic cloning may be of no value. Stem cell research and genetic cloning remain a controversial issue that has both advocates and opponents, More than a decade ago the Roslin Institute scientists pioneered reproductive human cloning, creating the cloning of Dolly the sheep. At the turn of the 21st century the idea of cloned embryos for reproduction was rejected. Several years later, the use of spare embryos for stem cell research put the idea of cloned embryos on the agenda again. I will base on "A submission to the House of Lords Select Committee on Stem Cell Research" by David Jones (2000) to inform you about cloning for birth and transplantation, as well as human rights of human embryos among other issues related to stem cell research and genetic cloning. I will begin with genetic cloning. The clone organism is an early human life. In cloning, the nucleus of an unfertilized ovum is replaced by the nucleus of a body cell from an existing human being in order to create a human......

Words: 464 - Pages: 2

Medical Research

...JSLHR Research Article Lexical Effects on Children’s Speech Processing: Individual Differences Reflected in the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Mitsuhiko Ota,a Mary E. Stewart,b Alexandra M. Petrou,b and Catherine Dickiec Purpose: This study was undertaken to examine whether children exhibit the same relationship that adults show between lexical influence on phoneme identification and individual variation on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Method: Data from 62 4- to 7-year-olds with no diagnosis of autism were analyzed. The main task involved identification of the initial sound in pairs of voice-onset time continua with a real word on one end and a nonword on the other (e.g., gift–kift, giss–kiss). Participants were also given the children’s version of the AQ and a 2nd instrument related to autistic-like traits, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Results: The lexical shift was related to the AQ (particularly to its Attention Switching subscale) but not to the SRS. Conclusions: The size of lexical effects on children’s speech perception can be predicted by AQ scores but not necessarily by other measures of autism-like traits. The results indicate that speech perception in children manifests individual differences along some general dimension of cognitive style reflected in the AQ, possibly in relation to local/global information processing. U Ota, 2008; Yu, 2010; Yu, Abrego-Collier, & Sonderegger, 2013). The Autism-Spectrum......

Words: 5913 - Pages: 24

Ethical Dilemma on Medical Research

...ETHICAL DILEMMA ON MEDICAL RESEARCH (HUMANS AS SUBJECTS) I am in favor of the medical research on humans/infants that could save or benefit future generations. For as long as the researcher would strictly adhere to three principles to ethically conduct a research on human subjects it would always be fine for me. The first principle is, the researcher must believe that the human subject in the experiment has at least the same chance of doing as well as a patient in standard therapy. Second, human subjects must be selected equitably in the sense that the researcher must avoid vulnerable populations, such as the very sick and the poor. I believe that using money as an inducement is unethical. Third, a researcher still has to have informed consent or to have a document and a process where he/she explains the procedure, the risks and the benefits to the subject – to the guardian given the subject is infant. The researcher must understand that the informed consent document does not evidence either that the participant is informed or that he/she consents. There is an ethical duty on the researcher to make sure that the subject understands the process and risks and is not coerced into giving consent. I definitely condemn medical researcher who believes that his/her work is so important that it justifies compromising the human subject. The abovementioned principles must be upheld at all times within such kind of research. Researchers for thousand years have abused human subjects to......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Medical Research

...organization of information in the medical research p aper have tended to present accounts of the structure of information in s ections in isolation. The structure of information in all sections of the medical r esearch paper was investigated using Swales' (1981, 1990) genre-analysis m odel. An eleven-move schema was identified, out of which nine were found t o be "normally required" and two "optional". Each schema was found to e mbody "constituent elements" and to be characterized by distinct linguistic f eatures. The study provides insights into the nature of discourse organization in this genre of written discourse. © 1997 The American University. Published b y Elsevier Science Ltd I ntroduction A s with most experimental research reports, the medical research paper is a highly technical form with a standard format for the presentation of i nformation. This format is the division of the paper into "Introduction, M ethods, Results and Discussion" - - the traditional IMRD sections of the r esearch paper. M ost research article writers are familiar with the IMRD format, but not all are conscious of the fact that there exists an internal ordering of the i nformation presented in the various sections of the research article. This l ack of awareness may account partly for the difficulty which most writers, e specially new entrants into the academic discourse community face with p roducing clear, coherent and logically organized research reports. A n umber......

Words: 9805 - Pages: 40