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科層體制(Bureaucracy)

科層體制亦有譯為「官僚體制」。此種制度是指機關內分別負有專責處理事務的行政體系的一種名稱。其特點在行政機關內容各等級的單位負責人,有固定的職務,有劃分的權限,有例行公事的一定程序,有對上對下所負責任的範圍。換言之,是機關內刻板方式的行政組織。現代社會裡的大規模組織如政府、工廠、公司、大學、工會、教會等,幾乎普遍有此科層體制的存在。科層體制處理事務的方式,是刻板、無彈性、按部就班、專業化、一切須照規定辦理,其目的在提高機關的行政效率。 科層體制的觀念是德國社會學者韋伯(Max Weber)所創導,其後歐美社會學家,對此觀念加以修正與補充,成為社會學研究的一個範疇。 科層體制的結構,按照韋伯的觀念,有下列幾點:
1.機關內各單位有固定的職務分配,每一職員所擔任的工作,根據嚴格的分工制度,所雇用的職員須具熟練的專門技術。
2.機關內職員地位,依照等級劃分。下層對上層負責,服從上層命令,受上層監督。上級對屬下的指示與監督,不能超過規定職能的範圍。
3.處理事務一切須按法規所定的條文範圍引用,不得滲入個人因素,用以維持統一的標準。
4.機關內職員絕對避免私人情感,不得意氣用事,對辦理案件,不加入一己成見。
5.用人根據專門技術的資歷,不得任意解雇。升等按個人的工作成就而定。人事受理以鼓勵或啟發職員對機關的維護及工作的興趣為主旨。
6.科層體制的主要目標,在使行政組織的工作效率增高。在現代大規模的各種組織,如不採取科層制度,必使整個機關雜亂無章。所以科層體制是現代正式組織(formal organization)的理想行政制度。 科層體制的利弊,在利的方面言,是效率高、正確、迅速、專家控制、連續、謹慎、協調及免除私人情感。弊的方面在太形式化、刻板化、缺乏個人創作及過於繁文縟節。

【資料來源】龍冠海主編(1971)。雲五社會學大辭典(第一冊):社會學。臺北:臺灣商務印書館。P. 123。

官員專業團體,按金字塔式的等級制度組成,並按非個人的、千篇一律的規章制度辦事。其特點首由德國社會學家韋伯(Max Weber)系統地加以說明,他看到了官僚機構中高度發展的分工,根據行政法則而不是個人的忠誠或社會習俗來確立權威,是一種「理性的」而非個人的機構,其成員的功能更多地是作為「官員」而非個人。在韋伯看來,資本主義制度下的官僚機構是一種不可避免的、墨守法規的「優勢」形式。後來的學者則看到了官僚機構把一切權力集中於最上層人士之手而變成獨裁統治的趨勢,如蘇聯發生的情形那樣。默頓(Robert K. Merton)強調官僚機構因執著於程式規定而變得繁文縟節和缺乏效率。近來的理論則強調在創建政治化組織的過程中,管理派系、既得利益集團或追求個人利益者之間的內部衝突角色。
Professional corps of officials organized in a pyramidal hierarchy and functioning under impersonal, uniform rules and procedures. Its characteristics were first formulated systematically by Max Weber, who saw in the bureaucratic organization a highly developed division of labor, authority based on administrative rules rather than personal allegiance or social custom, and a “rational” and impersonal institution whose members function more as “offices” than as individuals. For Weber, bureaucracy was a form of legalistic “domination” inevitable under capitalism. Later writers saw in bureaucracy a tendency to concentrate power at the top and become dictatorial, as occurred in the Soviet Union. Robert…...

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