Bank Sentral

In: Business and Management

Submitted By AhmadWira
Words 3253
Pages 14
Bank Sentral

Pada dasarnya, bila dilihat dari istilah/namanya, bank sentral tidak dapat diartikan sebagai "bank" seperti pada bank umum. Dalam hal ini bank sentral memiliki konsepsi yang berbeda. Bank umum cenderung untuk berusaha menginvestasikan assets-nya dengan tujuan memaksimumkan profit. Di sisi lain, bank sentral sebagai bank milik pemerintah, adalah lembaga keuangan yang tidak bertujuan untuk memaksimumkan profit melainkan untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu seperti mencegah kegagalan yang dialami perbankan maupun bukan bank, kestabilan tingkat harga, kesempatan kerja dan akhimya pada pertumbuhan ekonomi. Dengan kata lain, bank sentral bertugas untuk melaksanakan fungsi-fungsi pemerintah karena, bank sentral adalah juga bagian dari pemerintah.

Perkembangan Bank Sentral

Berdasarkan sejarahnya, bank sentral bukanlah suatu lembaga yang sejak awal didirikan dengan tujuan untuk menjalankan fungsinya sebagai bank sentral. Sampai dengan awal abad ke-20 tidak ada konsepsi yang jelas mengenai central banking. Konsepsi tersebut baru terlihat kemudian setelah mengalami proses panjang dan hal tersebut bukan merupakan suatu proses yang sengaja diarahkan pada terbentuknya konsep central banking, sehingga tidak terdapat teknik yang sistematis dan konsisten ke arah terbentuknya bank sentral.

Di banyak negara yang lebih tua, perkembangan ke arah bank sentral tersebut dimulai dari adanya suatu bank yang secara bertahap, melaksanakan berbagai macam posisi, baik bersifat lembaga pemerintah, maupun non-pemerintah yang kemudian dikenal dengan nama bank sentral. Beberapa posisi/wewenang yang dimiliki lembaga tersebut antara lain: hak untuk mengeluarkan uang (partial monopoly), dapat bertindak sebagai banker dan agen pemerintah.. Bank yang memiliki posisi tersebut dikenal sebagai "bank of issue" atau "national bank". Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya, bank tersebut memperoleh…...

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